Monday, January 13, 2020

Role of Youth in Eradicating Corruption

Laser and its medical applications Presented by S. vignesh J. sabastian The Advent of the â€Å"Laser Scalpel† Early experimenters with medical lasers pointed out that there are surgical operations that are difficult to perform with the conventional scalpel and that a laser beam might be used instead. Initial trials showed that a finely focused beam from a carbon dioxide gas laser could cut through human tissue easily and neatly. The surgeon could direct the beam from any angle by using a mirror mounted on a movable metal arm. Several advantages of laser surgery quickly became apparent.First, the light beam is consistent, which means that it gives off the same amount of energy from In this photo taken during open-heart surgery, a doctor uses a laser probe to punch small holes in the patient's heart muscle to increase the organ's blood flow. one second to the next. So as long as the beam is moving along, the cut it makes (the incision) does not vary in depth; whereas when using a scalpel a doctor can accidentally make part of the incision too deep. A second advantage of the surgical laser is that the hot beam cauterizes, or seals off, the open blood vessels as it moves along. This works well mainly for small vessels, such as those in the skin. The doctor still has to seal off the larger blood vessels using conventional methods. ) Still another advantage is that the cells in human tissue do not conduct heat very well, so the skin or any other tissue near the laser incision does not get very hot and is not affected by the beam. This advantage of laser surgery is very helpful when a doctor must operate on a tiny area that is surrounded by healthy tissue or organs. It should be pointed out that the â€Å"laser scalpel† is not necessarily the best tool to use in every operation.Some doctors feel that while the laser is useful in some situations, it will never totally replace the scalpel. Others are more optimistic and see a day when more advanced lasers will make the scalpel a thing of the past. The second of these views may prove to be the most accurate, for surgical use of lasers is rapidly advancing. At first, lasers were considered most effective in operating on areas that are easy to reach—areas on the body's exterior, including the skin, mouth, nose, ears, and eyes. But in recent years doctors have demonstrated remarkable progress in developing laser techniques for use in internal exploration and surgery.Of course, in order to be able to direct the laser beam the doctor must be able to see inside the body. In some cases this is a simple matter of making an incision and opening up the area to be operated on. But there are situations in which this step can be avoided. Cleaning Arteries with Light For instance, lasers are increasingly used to clean plaque from people's arteries. Plaque is a tough fatty substance that can build up on the inside walls of the arteries. Eventually the vessels can get so clogged that blood do es not flow normally, and the result can be a heart attack or stroke, both of which are serious and sometimes fatal.The traditional method for removing the plaque involves opening the chest and making several incisions, a long and sometimes risky operation. It is also expensive and requires weeks for recovery. An effective alternative is to use a laser beam to burn away the plaque. The key to making this work is the doctor's ability to see inside the artery and direct the beam, another area in which fiber optics and lasers are combined into a modern wonder tool. An optic fiber that has been connected to a tiny television camera can be inserted into an artery.These elements now become a miniature sensor that allows the doctor and nurses to see inside the artery while a second fiber is inserted to carry the bursts of light that will burn away the plaque. The technique works in the following way. The fiber-optic array is inserted into a blood vessel in an arm or leg and moved slowly in to the area of the heart and blocked arteries. When the array is in place the laser is fired and the plaque destroyed, and then the exhaust vapors are sucked back through a tiny hollow tube that is inserted along with the optical fibers.When the artery has been cleaned out the doctor removes the fibers and tube, and the operation is finished. This medical process is known as laser angioplasty. It has several obvious advantages. First, no incision is needed (except for the small one in the vessel to insert the fibers). There is also little or no bleeding, and the patient can enjoy total recovery in a day or two. Laser angioplasty does have some potential risks that must be considered. First, when the laser beam fires at the plaque it must be aimed very carefully ecause a slight miss could cut through the wall of the artery and cause serious bleeding. The patient's chest would then have to be opened up after all. Another problem involves small pieces of burnt debris from the Surgeons use a tiny laser to cut away tissue in a gallbladder operation. The laser and a tiny camera are inserted into the navel, so no abdominal incision is necessary. . Lasers Heal and Reshape the Eyes Some of the most remarkable breakthroughs for medical lasers have been in the area of ophthalmology, the study of the structure and diseases of the eye.One reason that laser beams are so useful in treating the eye is that the cornea, the coating that covers the eyeball and admits light into the interior of the eye, is transparent. Since it is designed to admit ordinary light, the cornea lets in laser light just as well and remains unaffected by the beam. First, the laser is very useful in removing extraneous blood vessels that can form on the retina—the thin, light-sensitive membrane at the back of the eyeball. It is on the retina that the images of the things the eye sees are formed. Damage to the retina can sometimes cause blindness.The laser most often used in the treatment of this condition is powered by a medium of argon gas. The doctor aims the beam through the cornea and burns away the tangle of blood vessels covering the retina. The procedure takes only a few minutes and can be done in the doctor's office. The laser can also repair a detached retina—one that has broken loose from the rear part of the eyeball. Before the advent of lasers detached retinas had to be repaired by hand, and because the retina is so delicate this was a very difficult operation to perform. Using the argon laser, the doctor can actually â€Å"weld† the torn retina back in place.It is perhaps a strange coincidence that Gordon Gould, one of the original inventors of the laser, later had one of his own retinas repaired this way. Another condition that affects the eye is glaucoma, which is characterized by the buildup of fluid in the eye. Normally the eye's natural fluids drain away a little at a time, and the eye stays healthy. In eyes impaired with glaucoma the fluid does not drain properly, and the buildup affects vision; blindness can sometimes result. In some cases drugs can be used to treat glaucoma. If the drugs fail, however, many doctors now turn to the laser to avoid onventional surgery. The laser punches a hole in a preplanned spot and the fluid drains out through the hole. Again, the treatment can be performed in a doctor's office instead of a hospital. Using Lasers for Eye Surgery The laser works like a sewing machine to repair a detached retina, the membrane that lines the interior of the eye. The laser beam is adjusted so that it can pass harmlessly through the lens and focus on tiny spots around the damaged area of the retina. When it is focused, the beam has the intensity to â€Å"weld† or seal the detached area of the retina back against the wall of the eyeball.The patient's eyeglass prescription is literally carved inside the cornea with the beam of an excimer laser [a laser device that produces pulses of ultraviolet, or UV, light]. A small flap of the cornea is first removed with a precision knife . . . and an A patient undergoes eye surgery performed by a laser beam. In addition to treating detached retinas, lasers can remove cataracts. inner portion of the cornea is exposed to the excimer laser. After the prescription is carved, the corneal flap that was opened is then put back into place over the ablated [surgically altered] cornea. 6 LASIK does not come without risks.The changes it makes in the cornea are permanent, and the danger of unexpected damage is ever present. However, the procedure has become increasingly popular each year; about a million Americans had it done in the year 2000, and about four thousand surgeons in the United States were trained to perform it. Some Cosmetic Uses of Lasers Medical lasers are also widely used for various types of cosmetic surgery, including the removal of certain kinds of birthmarks. Port-wine stains, reddish purple skin blotches that appear on about thre e out of every one thousand children, are an example.Such stains can mark any part of the body but are most commonly found on the face and neck. The medical laser is able to remove a port-wine stain for the same reason that a military laser is able to flash a message to a submerged submarine. Both lasers take advantage of the monochromatic quality of laser light, that is, its ability to shine in one specific color. The stain is made up of thousands of tiny malformed blood vessels that have a definite reddish purple color. This color very strongly absorbs a certain shade of green light. In fact, that is why the stain looks red.It absorbs the green and other colors in white light but reflects the red back to people's eyes. To treat the stain, the doctor runs a wide low-power beam of green light across the discolored area. The mass of blood vessels in the stain absorbs the energetic laser light and becomes so hot that it is actually burned away. The surrounding skin is a different colo r than the stain, so that skin absorbs only small amounts of the beam and remains unburned. (Of course, the burned A doctor uses an argon laser to remove a port-wine stain, a kind of birthmark.Unwanted tissue is burned away while normal skin remains undamaged. areas must heal, and during this process some minor scarring sometimes occurs. ) Laser-Assisted Dentistry Dentistry is another branch of medicine that has benefited tremendously from laser technology. Indeed, lasers have made some people stop dreading a visit to the dentist. No one enjoys having a cavity drilled, of course. It usually requires an anesthetic (a painkiller like novocaine) that causes uncomfortable numbness in the mouth; also, the sound of the drill can be irritating or even sickening to some people.Many dentists now employ an Nd-YAG laser (which uses a crystal for its lasing medium) instead of a drill for most cavities. The laser treatment takes advantage of the simple fact that the material that forms in a cavi ty is much softer than the enamel (the hard part of a tooth). The laser is set at a power that is just strong enough to eliminate the decayed tissue but not strong enough to harm the enamel. When treating a very deep cavity bleeding sometimes occurs, and the laser beam often seals off blood vessels and stops the bleeding. The most often asked question about treating cavities with lasers is: Does it hurt?The answer is no. Each burst of laser light from a dental laser lasts only thirty-trillionths of a second, much faster than the amount of time a nerve takes to trigger pain. In other words, the beam would have to last 100 million times longer in order to cause any discomfort. So this sort of treatment requires no anesthetic. Advantages of Lasers for Dental Surgery In this excerpt from an article in The Dental Clinics of North America Robert A. Strauss of the Medical College of Virginia mentions some of the advantages of using lasers for oral surgery. Decreased post-operative swelling is characteristic of laser use [for oral surgery].Decreased swelling allows for increased safety when performing surgery within the airway [the mouth] . . . and increases the range of surgery that oral surgeons can perform safely without fear of airway compromise. This effect allows the surgeon to perform many procedures in an office or outpatient facility that previously would have required hospitalization. . . . Tissue healing and scarring are also improved with the use of the laser. . . . Laser wounds generally heal with minimal scar formation and . . . often can be left unsutured [without stitches], another distinct advantage. Thus the role of laser in medical field is most predominant.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Analyzing Casino-Money Handling Process - 1247 Words

The Buffalo News Team | Analyzing Casino Money-Handling Processes | MGO630: Mini-case #2 | Ashley BeckerZachary BradoColin CaseySamantha ChmuraArvind Thinagarajan 2/2/2012 | 1. The Drop process Drop team leader, security and accounting people deliver the buckets to hard count room [30 min/cart] Security officer and slot drop team leader obtain slot cabinet keys from casino cashier’s cage [15 min] Slot drop leader removes the drop bucket from slot machine cabinet [10 min/slot machine] Tag with proper slot machine number is placed on top of the coins A cart is filled with buckets from 20 different slot machines Buckets are securely locked in the hard count room to await start of the hard count process Drop team†¦show more content†¦The casino is considering the purchase of a second coin-wrapping machine. What impact would this have on the hard count process? Is this the most desirable machine to purchase? Based on calculations that was done for question #2, the total time of hard count process (4590 minutes) is being split up by various processes as below, Hard Count Process | Time consumed(minutes) | % of time consumed | i) Testing weigh scale | 10 | - | ii) Weighing and recording process | 2100 | 45% | iii) Coin-wrapping process | 900 | 20% | iv) Filling amp; stacking (Canning process) | 1125 | 25% | v) Weigh amp; wrap verification report | 5 | - | vi) Manual counting verification report | 450 | 10% | The coin-wrapping machine currently takes up 20% of the total time taken for the hard count process. By purchasing a second coin-wrapping machine, the time consumed by the machine in the overall process can be halved. When the time consumed by the coin-wrapping machine goes down to 450 minutes, it results in a 10% decrease in overall hard count process time. However, it has to be noted that there are other processes that are guilty of contributing much higher percentages to the overall processing time, when compared to the coin-wrapping process. For example, the weighing and recording process takes up more than 45% of the total time. TheShow MoreRelatedCase - Analyzing Casino Money-Handling Processes1492 Words   |  6 PagesCase: Analyzing Casino Money-Handling Processes Bartley D. Corbin Webster University Author Note This paper was prepared as partial fulfillment of the requirements for BUSN 6110, Term Fall 1, 2010 taught by Professor Gary Sample. Abstract This case study is from Chapter 6 of the text on page 183. It is an analysis of the casinos money-handling processes. The process begins with retrieving the money from the slot machines and is referred to in the gaming industry as the drop process. The hardRead MoreThe Security Evaluation Methodology And Analysis1743 Words   |  7 Pagesworld. The Information Technology which is made up of Computers, Internet and Cyberspace give problems for the law. Current system and its framework has proven to be inadequate in case of handing with Information Technology itself as well as while handling with the alterations induced by the Information Technology in the way of peoples living. The courts all around the globe is facing these problems. So there is the Cyber Laws in action which are there to control these crimes and for this crimes toRead MoreData Management and Assessment Question2881 Words   |  12 Pagesstudent record contains information regarding the student’s last name. The last name is a(n): attribute. entity. primary key. object. file. Assessment Question 3.42 Your answer is correct. 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With this being said, upon analyzing Carnival’s Code of Conducts and business ethics, we have to wonder how ethically committed the company really is. As we were researching the company’s business practices, we found a website that listed an unusually high amount of complaints fromRead MoreCase Study for Management Accounting36912 Words   |  148 Pagesrequirements, the firm could easily fail to design an effective seal. Fast prototyping consisted of rapidly creating a working example of the new product. Fast prototyping had two advantages. First, the customer could, early in its own product development process, test the new seal to ensure that it would be effective in the specific application for which it was designed. Second, the fast prototype enabled the manufacturing engineers to designate specific quality control steps and to establish guidelinesRead MoreCase Study for Management Accounting36918 Words   |  148 Pagesrequirements, the firm could easily fail to design an effective seal. Fast prototyping consisted of rapidly creating a working example of the new product. Fast prototyping had two advantages. First, the customer could, early in its own product development process, test the new seal to ensure that it would be effective in the specific application for which it was designed. Second, the fast prototype enabled the manufacturing engineers to designate specific quality control steps and to establish guidelinesRead MoreEntrepreneur Assignment7104 Words   |  29 Pagesopportunity-orientated will first and foremost focus on growth opportunity than the business and its resources. Entrepreneurs in the 21st century not only must be able to see and grab opportunity whenever there is but also must be able and sensitive in analyzing, formulate and taking action towards any opportunities. Entrepreneurs who grab any chances that they see and make the best out of it are the pre-condition to success. In order to be an entrepreneur who can predict and analyze opportunities, theyRead MoreIf You Need Love, Get a Puppy7050 Words   |  29 Pagesthe exercise of professional skepticism by a staff auditor who ï ¬ nds himself in the uncomfortable situation of accusing a friend of fraud. The case demonstrates the difï ¬ cult personal and professional choices that auditors must sometimes make. In analyzing the case, students consider auditor independence rules, as well as the concepts of indep endence in appearance and independence in mental attitude. Students are asked to identify the types of audit evidence and internal controls needed to detect and

Saturday, December 28, 2019

Orwell s Animal Farm, By George Orwell - 856 Words

Stultifying to self-delusion In novel â€Å"Animal Farm† by George Orwell, he mentions the animals in the farm they all have the vision of freedom after Old Major’s prediction. They rebilled against the farmers and after their victory they tasted the revolution. The farm was renamed â€Å"Animal Farm† and made the constitution of the manor – â€Å"the seven commandments.† Soon there is a split on the revolution between the pigs, Snowball was declared as an enemies of the revolution. Since then Napoleon and Squealer obtained the leadership of the farm, immediately they have more power and more preferential treatment, they gradually moved away from other animals, and eventually become exploiters for exactly the same as humans, the original ideals of animal farm name is also be abandoned. One theme of animal farm is that we need to have a clever mind to see through unfair trick, before it is too late. One way this theme is introduced is through the characterization of intellectual animals. The animals have poor intelligence development can never understand which way are the right thing and which are not, their world view are small, and just like a frog living at the bottom of a well. In a year the animals live like a slave, but they enjoy it, not afraid of hardship, and not afraid of sacrifice. Because they are deeply aware of: that everything they do for their own interests and their own future, but not for those idle, lazy humans. But is that really true? In all animals Boxer became theShow MoreRelatedGeorge Orwell s Animal Farm1361 Words   |  6 Pagesfarmer, but of late he had fallen on evil days†(Orwell 38). In Animal Farm George Orwell describes life for the animals on a farm in the english countryside during the mid to early 20th century before, during and after a revolution against their master Mr.Jones in order to represent the russian revolution and describe to p eople throughout the free world how leaders in both capitalist and communist societies oppress the working class as a result Orwell s tone throughout the novel is concerned. TsarRead MoreGeorge Orwell s Animal Farm1392 Words   |  6 Pages George Orwell Never Misuses Words In what was a vastly controversial novel published in 1945, George Orwell’s Animal Farm describes the horrific brand of communism in the Soviet Union and the conscious blindness that most of the West accepted at that time. Although Orwell labeled Animal Farm as a fairy tale, this historically parallel novel branches into the genres of political satire, fable, and allegory as well. What made Animal Farm so controversial among the â€Å"British socialists† and WesternRead MoreGeorge Orwell s Animal Farm958 Words   |  4 PagesImagine that you were an animal s or citizen living under Napoleon or Stalin rule and the fear that your life can be taken always from you at any time. In the novel of Animal Farm, George Orwell he wanted to show how a book is a sarcasm of the Russian Revolution during the communist years and the satire of that time between Trotsky and Stalin. Where Orwell chose to create his character base of the common people of Russia at the time of the Revolution. Animal Farm is a social or allegory about NapoleonRead MoreGeorge Orwell s Animal Farm922 Words   |  4 Pages In the novel Animal Farm, by George Orwell, the wisest boar of the farm, Old Major, mimics Karl Marx, the â€Å"Father of Communism,† and Vladimir Lenin, a Russian communist revolutionary. George Orwell introduces direct parallels between the respected figures through their mutual ideas of equality and profoundly appreciated qualities. Furthermore, his utilization of dialect and descriptions represent the key ideas of the novel. Throughout the novel, Orwell continues to show comparisons betweenRead MoreGeorge Orwell s Animal Farm1395 Words   |  6 PagesGeorge Orwell’s Animal Farm: The Power of Corruption In George Orwell’s Animal Farm, Orwell illustrates how power corrupts absolutely and how Napoleon degrades the structure and stability of Animal Farm because of the decisions that he makes. I will also expand on the idea of how Old Major’s ideas for an organized society get completely destroyed by Napoleon’s revolutionary actions. It was ironic and satirical that Napoleon’s own power annihilates Animal Farm. The satire in George Orwell’s AnimalRead MoreGeorge Orwell s Animal Farm1463 Words   |  6 Pagesbut of late he had fallen on evil days†(Orwell 38). In Animal Farm, George Orwell describes life for the animals on a farm in the English countryside during the mid to early 20th century before, during and after a revolution against their master, Mr.Jones. Orwell does this to represent the Russian revolution and describe to people throughout the free world how leaders in both capitalist and communist societies oppress the working class. As a result Orwell s tone throughout the novel is concernedRead MoreGeorge Orwell s Animal Farm1360 Words   |  6 Pagesquestion minus the answer.† In George Orwell’s â€Å"Animal Farm†, the author raises the question whether the type of government, communism, is feasible in a community without leading to a type of dictatorship or totalitarianism. Orwell presents the idea that communism is a good idea in theory, but it always leads to corruption by the people who take power. The author presents the novel as an entertaining fable featuring an animal revolution; however, beneath this storyline Orwell utilizes literary devicesRead MoreGeorge Orwell s Animal Farm1255 Words   |  6 Pagesrebellion in history. With these principles at heart, it only seems logical that human society should become utopian. Despite the principles, the French revolution paved the way for the autocratic rule of Napoleon. History repeats itself; George Orwell’s Animal Farm follows the rise of Animalism which serves as an allegorical reflection of the 1917 Russian revolution that led into the Stalinist era. Many revolutions throughout history follow the same path as the newly installed government always becomeRead MoreGeorge Orwell s Animal Farm1403 Words   |  6 PagesGeorge Orwell believes â€Å"What you get over and over again is a movement of the proletariat which is promptly characterized and betrayed by astut e people at the top and then the growth of a new governing class. The one thing that never arrives is equality† (Letemendia 1). Orwell simply loathes revolution and thinks it is unfair to the majority, for the people. He thinks that while individuals change, the people in power are always corrupt and they will corrupt any attempt at change. He communicatesRead MoreGeorge Orwell s Animal Farm1449 Words   |  6 Pagesconcept that the animals in George Orwell’s novel Animal Farm crave. The animals of Animal Farm want freedom from their â€Å"dictator† Farmer Jones and the rest of humanity. Their problem is that Farmer Jones and humanity are still in power. With the bravery of two pigs, Napoleon and Snowball, the animals overthrow their human oppressors and free themselves from humanity. With his new freedom Napoleon craves power and expels Snowball. He becomes the dictator of Animal Farm and makes the farm a place where

Friday, December 20, 2019

A Brief Paper About Dry Versus Wet Campuses - 889 Words

I was originally going to write this paper about dry versus wet campuses, but I have realized the topic is far more extensive than I previously believed. Also the class lecture on alcohol and illicit drugs was off-putting from using that topic as my own. My direction for the paper was directed towards depicting and explaining why dry campuses do not protect against illegal drinking or dangerous drinking. Finding standard statistics about binge drinking was easy, but I could not find the statistics that were directed towards what percentage occurred at â€Å"dry or wet† campuses. That simple detail was crucial to me, because that was a major facet of my viewpoint. Human nature directs that people if have the willpower towards doing something then they will do it. Drinking is a prime example except when it is done sparingly at dry campuses at least in personal insight is abused more easily. This leads to dangerous intoxication levels, and can lead to hospitalization being n ecessary. I have a specific personal reference of Alex Bost two years ago was hospitalized due to binge drinking, but that is only one example of thousands. An example is not always characteristic of the population. Last school year I observed three occasions that emergency services were used to assist and treat people who were experiencing alcohol poisoning. I know an individual who during the night of winter formal, while on Chestnut Hill’s campus was so intoxicated that she vomited on someone else’s

Thursday, December 12, 2019

Worldview Forum

Question: Who is Jesus and is he still relevant in the Twenty-First century? If you answer no Jesus is not relevant today explain why. If you answer yes Jesus is relevant for humanity today explain how you understand Jesus to be relevant in the Twenty-First century. Answer: Who is Jesus? Is he still relevant in the Twenty-First century? The historians rely on four main canonical gospel texts when describing about Jesus as there is nothing written by any of the people who witnesses Jesus in their lifetime[1]. According to those texts, Jesus of Nazareth was a central figure of Christianity and he is considered as the Son of God. Is he still relevant in the Twenty-First century? It has been 2,000 years since Jesus Christ last walked the Earth and this is why today most of the people find him and his teaching irrelevant[2]. However, it can be said that in todays context Jesus and his teaching are still relevant. He came to aid humanity at a time when the world was living under chaos. Currently the World is facing the same situation as now humanity is losing its existence and people are running behind power and wealth. Therefore, it is the high time when the teachings of Jesus and his lifestyle must be followed again in order to avoid apocalypse. References Cutler, Ian. "On The Author Of Christ And The Author Of The Anti-Christ".Philo15, no. 1 (2012): 5-18. Schmit, Clayton J. "Mark A. Noll, Jesus Christ And The Life Of The Mind".HMLTC37, no. 2 (2012). [1] Cutler, Ian. "On The Author Of Christ And The Author Of The Anti-Christ".Philo15, no. 1 (2012): 5-18. [2] Schmit, Clayton J. "Mark A. Noll, Jesus Christ And The Life Of The Mind".HMLTC37, no. 2 (2012).

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Why Are Police Officers More Dangerous Than Airpla Essay Example For Students

Why Are Police Officers More Dangerous Than Airpla Essay nes?Pagan Kennedy AUG. 11, 2017382PhotoCreditAngie Wang Its 2:30 in the morning and my phone rings. My daughter says, Daddy, you need to come to the hospital, Michael Bell told me, of the moment in 2004 when he learned that his son had been shot by a police officer in their hometown, Kenosha, Wis. Twenty-one-year-old Michael Bell Jr. died that night from a bullet wound to the head. In the nightmarish hours that followed, his father expected independent investigators to arrive on the scene and find out what had gone wrong. A former Air Force pilot, he knew that when an accident happened in the military, a forensic team performed an exhaustive review. Above all, he wanted to make sure that if a mistake had contributed to his sons death, it would be identified and fixed, so that nothing like it would happen again. This investigative method is standard in aviation. When a plane crashes, experts pick through the wreckage to determine the cause and make recommendations to prevent the next accident. The process is so effective that for the last several years, the death rate from crashes of American commercial planes has been zero. But no comparable system exists in policing and that may help explain why you are far more likely to die at the hands of a cop than to perish in an plane crash. Police officers in the United States now kill about 1,000 people and wound more than 50,000every year. Of course, no independent team arrived to perform a forensic analysis of the younger Mr. Bells death. Instead, the Kenosha police department spent two days investigating its own officers before ruling that the shooting was justified. The police officers claimed that Michael had failed to make a complete stop (and tests later showed Michael had been drinking), so they followed him to his house and parked behind him. According to the police, the young man had lunged at them and tried to pull a gun out of an officers holster. PhotoThe family of Michael Bell (in picture), a young man who died in policecustody, recount the story of how their son died at a Citizens Tribunal inMilwaukee, Wisconsin. CreditNarayan Mahon for The New York Times Mr. Bell hired his own investigators. They contend that it all began with faulty equipment: Officer Erich Strausbaughs holster caught on a cable dangling from one of the cars side-view mirrors, so that when he tackled Michael, he felt a powerful tug on his belt. Assuming that the young man had grabbed for his weapon, he called out to his partners, Hes got my gun. Michaels mother and sister, who were watching nearby, yelled that Michael did not have the gun. But it was too late. Continue reading the main story My blond-haired boy was killed, Mr. Bell said, and then blamed. He continued, If that was how it was for my family, then I knew that the families of African-American, Hispanic or Asian boys didnt stand a chance. That was one of reasons I started raising a ruckus. Police violence is tangled up with racism and systemic injustice. We desperately need to do more to address that, foremost by shoring up the criminal-justice system so that it holds police officers accountable when they kill. But its also true that deadly mistakes are going to happen when police officers engage in millions of potentially dangerous procedures a year. What aviation teaches us is that it should be possible to accident proof police work, if only we are willing to admit when mistakes are made. Mr. Bell, in fact, does not blame Officer Strausbaugh, who committed suicide several years later. The officer made an honest mistake, he said; the problem is that the police department covered it up. In 2010, the family received some vindication when the City of Kenosha agreed to pay $1.75 million to settle a wrongful-death lawsuit. Afterward, Mr. Bell paid to erect billboards asking: When police kill, should they judge themselves? In 2014, Wisconsin passed a law requiring independent investigations of police actions that result in a civilian death. Mr. Bell is still pushing for reform, touring Wisconsin with graphs and charts think of him as the Al Gore of police shootings. In meetings in legislative offices, he explains that a proven method to improve safety already exists in the fields of medicine, nuclear power and aviation. Engineers call it an external-learning system. After an airplane plummets into a cornfield or a swamp, the National Transportation Safety Board sends a go team to interview survivors and pick through the debris for evidence of mechanical failures. Those investigations have led to revelations about how hidden problems can spin into disaster. For instance, in 1986, a single-engine airplane plowed into a jet in the air above Los Angeles County. That accident killed 82 people, and led to new rules that made flying safer: Small aircraft flying close to major airports are now required to use transponders that indicate their position to controllers, and airliners are outfitted with traffic collision-avoidance systems. Battle Of Ap Bac Essay Of course, there are considerable hurdles. Millions of drivers would have to download and learn to use the app. And police departments are likely to resist any changes to the traffic stop, which gives them broad authority to search cars for drugs and guns. Still, even if the app fizzles, it represents an intriguing use of 21st-century technology to solve longstanding problems in policing. Their project inspired me to dig into the history of the traffic stop. How was it developed and when? It goes back more than 90 years to the Jazz Age, when bootleggers defied Prohibition laws by piling cases of whiskey into cars and speeding off to speakeasies. In response, the Supreme Court ruled in 1925 in favor of the automobile exception that allowed the police to search cars without a warrant. Today, the legal patchwork of exceptions around the car means that with minimal cause for instance, you forgot to use your turn signal a police officer can ask for your identification, eyeball your stuff and make a judgment call about your behavior. If he decides that youre uncooperative, he can perform a deeper search. In other words, when it comes to traffic stops, the law gives broad powers to conduct warrantless searches. Is it any wonder that the procedure has become a favorite tool of law enforcement looking to seize guns and drugs before they hit the streets? According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, about 26 million Americans were pulled over by police officers in 2011 alone thats over 10 percent of the population aged 16 and older. Of course, because of racial bias, a disproportionate number of those people are minorities. In fact, you could argue that the way the traffic stop is designed is inherently racist, since it encourages stop-and-frisk methods that unfairly single out African- American drivers. How can we fix this system that puts civilians and the police officers who stop them at risk? The obvious solution is to take the officers and their guns out of the picture whenever possible. New technologies allow us to do just that. In some cities, when you roll through a stoplight, a camera catches you in the act, and a few weeks later you receive a ticket in the mail. Data suggests that this automatic system is far cheaper than human ticketing and reduces pedestrian deaths. And a camera cant kill people. Of course, we do need state troopers to pull reckless drivers from the highway, just as we need to police drug and gun smuggling. But the highways arent the only place to do that. Police officers should not be questioning people about minor infractions like a broken taillight, especially when we know that this procedure can end in death. Even when no one is hurt, the confrontation causes a toxic distrust of the police and exacts a horrible mental toll on minorities. Before he was killed by a police officers bullets, Philando Castile had been stopped at least 49times by officers. The stress of driving while black has poisoned the roadways for millions of Americans. One of the most frustrating aspects of this problem is that we already have models for fixing it, whether it is a version of the National Transportation Safety Board, as Mr. Bell seeks, or an empowered citizen review board with strong investigative powers, which Ms. Jameson is calling for. Michael Scott, a former police chief who is now a professor of criminology and criminal justice at Arizona State University, is a fan of aviation safety-proofing and told me that we need a parallel system for the police. But, he said, law-enforcement agencies have a long way to go because they lack the most basic tools for learning from their mistakes. We dont even know exactly how many officer-involved shootings happen every year, he said, because we still do not have a single national reporting system that chronicles and documents every police-involved shooting in this country.Of course, its important to have a criminal and an administrativeinvestigation of any death that involves a police officer, he added. Butits not enough to determine who is to blame; we also need to ask, Why didthis happen? Until we can answer that question, innocent people will continue dying at the hands of the police. Pagan Kennedy is the author of Inventology: How We Dream Up Things ThatChange the World and a contributing opinion writer. Follow The New York Times Opinion section on Facebook and Twitter(@NYTopinion), and sign up for the Opinion Today newsletter.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

A Hermeneutical Critique on the Conquest and Occupation of the Land Belonging to Others from the Perspective of the Indigenous Peoples Essay Example

A Hermeneutical Critique on the Conquest and Occupation of the Land Belonging to Others: from the Perspective of the Indigenous Peoples Essay From the perspective of the indigenous peoples. Prepared by: Kyrshanborlang Mawlong, Lamjingshai and Friends Introduction: This study is an attempt to dwell upon the historical event in the ancient world of the Hebrew Bible. A familiar narration about the Israelite, taken into exile in Egypt, later, the episode from Moses up to the entry into Canaan under the terrific leadership of Joshua.This is a turning point for the history of the Israelites; this Meta happening have been usually considered as an important dates in records, conventionally it was interpreted as an act of victory. The main objective of this study is therefore to revisit the event from the other aspect. The Canaanites as indigenous indwellers of this captivated region. They were defeated under the influential forces which are foreign originated in nature. The paper starts with a brief biblical survey about the time when the Israelites, reached the promise land.A clear cut understanding about the term indigenous peop le is the next steps that follow. Salient features of the indigenous people were selectively highlighted. Categorizing the Canaanite as indigenous people is a careful consideration done here. Nearer to the end there is an application of hermeneutical critique on the settlement, but before that, since this is no longer a conventional interpretation, a brief preference for methods and approach were inserted. The discourse will be put in empty space without contemporary challenges, for this reason it occupy certain part before reaching the reflection.An attempt has been made to simplify all these in a comprehendible manner, though there are some unavoidable portions. 1. Summary of Israelite’s Conquest and Occupation of the Promise Land: Biblical Perspective: Some scholars they marked the events during the 13th century BCE; while N. Lemche, dates it to the 14th century BCE. This is a hint that the event occured somewhere around this period. The biblical accounts of the conquest c over four main areas: Transjordania, the Central Hill country, the Southern region, and the North. A summary of Israel’s conquest is made in the book of Joshua.Encamped at Gilgal, Israel was realistically prepared for Canaan as God’s chosen nation. Circumcision is a rite for the new covenant and of the promise God had made to bring them into the land. Entrance into the land was also marked by the Passover observance and cessation of the provision of manna. The people would henceforth eat of the fruits of the land. Joshua himself was prepared for conquest. By a theophany God imparted to Joshua the consciousness that the conquest of the land was not dependent solely upon him but that he was divinely commissioned and empowered.The conquest of Jericho was a sample victory. Israel simply followed the instructions of the Lord. The Israelites marched around the city seven times, the walls of the city fell and they could enter to take possession. Ai was the next objective for conquest. Assured of success, Joshua renewed his plans to conquer Ai. The enemy forces were lured into the open so that the thirty thousand men who had stationed beyond the city by night were able to attack Ai from the near and set it afire. The defenders were annihilated, their king was hanged and the site was reduced to rubble.When Israel makes its second attack, the people of Ai as well as the inhabitants of Bethel vacate their cities to pursue the enemy (Josh. 8: 17). Gibeon was one of the great cities of Palestine. When it capitulated to Israel, the king of Jerusalem was greatly alarmed. In response to his appeal other Amorite kings from Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish, and Eglon formed a coalition with him to attack the city of Gibeon. Having made an alliance with Israel, the beleaguered city immediately dispatched messengers to appeal for aid from that quarter.By an all night march from Gilgal, Joshua unexpectedly appeared at Gibeon, where he defeated and routed the enemy through th e Beth-horon pass (also known as the valley of Ajalon) as far as Azekah and Makkedah. At Makkedah the five kings of the Amorite league were trapped in a cave and were subsequently dispatched by Joshua. Joshua then assaulted the well fortified city of Lachish and on the second day of siege overthrew this stronghold. Next Israel moved on in victory to take Eglon, from there the troops struck eastward into the hill country and beset Hebron, which was not easily defended.Then moving southwest they stormed and took Debir or Kirjath-Sepher. The conquest and occupation of Northern Canaan is very briefly described. The opposition was organised and led by Jabin, king of Hazor who had at his command a great force of chariot. A great battle took place near the water of Merom with the result that the Canaanite coalition was utterly defeated by Joshua. The horses and chariots were destroyed and the city of Hazor was burned to the ground. In summary the territory covered by the occupation forces extended from Kadesh-Barnea, or the extremities of the Negeb as far north as the valley of Lebanon, below Mount Hermon.On the east side of the Jordan rift the area which previously had been conquered under Moses extended from Mount Hermon in the north to the valley of the Arnon, east of the Dead Sea. Thirty-one kings are listed as having been defeated by Joshua, with so many city-states, each having its own king in such a small country. Through this conquest Joshua subdued the inhabitants to the extent that during the subsequent period of peace the Israelites were able to settle in the Promised Land. 2.Indigenous People; Understanding the meaning of the term: The term â€Å"indigenous† means natives, autochthonous people (Sons [Sic] of the soil), primitives, minorities, first nation or Fourth World, or Adivasis. Roy Burman quotes a U. N. working definition, â€Å"Indigenous populations are composed of the existing descendants of the people who inhabited the present territory of a country, wholly or partially, at the time when persons of a different cultures or ethnic origin arrived there from other parts of the world, overcame them, and by conquest, settlement or other means, reduced them to a non-dominant situation. Indigenous peoples, men and women, are the voice of the land, the voice of the water, the voice of the air. The indigenous peoples’ struggles for land and identity, farmers’ engagement for sustainable agriculture, action to curb climate change, and people’s initiatives to defend their rights, are just a few key examples for relevant and vital engagement. The Indian indigenous people includes: Adivasis (tribal), Dalits, Manipuris, Jarowa tribes of Andaman Island, Naga natives of Nagaland, Tharus of India and several others. Adivasis literally means original inhabitants.The indigenous people of India amount to about 63 million, they are overwhelmingly the largest group for any single country in the world, constituting 30 percent of the total indigenous population of the whole world. 3. Salient Features of the Indigenous People: Indigenous people in India or in any parts of the world are distinctive in their own way of life, their food habits, customs, traditional practices etc. However, in spite of several differences and uniqueness, following are only few of their salient features which can be taken for the discussion: . 1. Relationship to the Land: For indigenous people, the land is source of life a gift from the Creator that nourishes supports and teaches. They consider the Earth like a parent and revere it accordingly. â€Å"Mother Earth† is the centre of the universe, the core of their culture, the origin of their identity as a people. At the heart of this deep bond is a perception, awareness, an innate wisdom that all of life’s mountains, rivers, skies, animals, plants, insects, rocks, and people are inseparably interconnected.According to indigenous law, humankind can never be more than a trustee of the land, with a collective responsibility to preserve it. Indigenous people do not consider the land as merely an economic resource. Their ancestral lands are literally the source of life, and their distinct ways of life are developed and defined in relationship to the environment around them. Indigenous people know the extent of their lands, and they know how the land, water, and other resources need to be shared. They understand only too well that to harm the land is to destroy ourselves, since they are part of the same organism. . 2. Culturally and Religiously Uprooted: Indigenous cultures which are also known as tribal or primal cultures are generally marked by a transmission of rituals and practices, not by books, but through tradition, stories, proverbs, customs, rites and celebrations handed down orally and codes of behaviour. They are often customs and beliefs rooted in the family, tribe or clan, and aligned with a particular place, without any major central or national organization. They offer their followers a holistic approach to religion and life and pay much attention to the family and to parentage in all its stages.Above all, they inculcate a strong sense of the sacred and are normally so permeated with religious from the cultural elements in them. People belonging to indigenous cultures believe in a Supreme Being and give it different names: e. g. Creator, Unique and Supreme Spirit, Omnipotent, Uncreated King, Omniscient, Omnipresent, One who is above all visible things, the Heaven, the Sun, the Incomparable, Life, Being par excellence, the Transcendent, etc. There is also among them a belief in spirits who are inferior to God.These spirits are thought to vary in their attitudes to human beings: they may be terrible, wicked or vindictive; they may be capricious, or they may be merciful and protective. Ancestors are revered in indigenous cultures. Life has no end. There is no death in the sense of a separation from the clo se family members of the tribal community. Life is eternal. At death, a person joins the ancestors, undergoing a transition from the state of mortality to that of ancestral immorality. The family is highly treasured among the indigenous cultures.This sense of community is gained through the family, the lineage, the clan, the tribe. There is almost a feeling of a divine imperative that life must be given, life must be lived; life is to be long and peaceful: For this reason, many tribal societies have taboos and rituals to protect the divine gift of life. Old people are held in esteem. The community regards their wisdom as prophetic, i. e. as able to give direction for living in the present day circumstances. Religious beliefs and practices enfold the whole of life. There is no dichotomy between social or political or economic engagement and religion.Faith, morality and worship are there in indigenous cultures. Great value is attributed to the word which is uttered. The moral code is regarded as that which has been handed down by past generations and sanctioned by God through the spirits. 3. 3. Injustices: A Common Experience of the Indigenous People: Indigenous communities throughout the world are the extensive diversity as peoples and communities, but there is one thing which is in common they all share a history of injustice. Indigenous peoples have been exploited, tortured, enslaved and killed.Conquest and colonization have attempted to steal their dignity and identity, as well as the fundamental right of self-determination. Indigenous peoples rank highest on underdevelopment; they face discrimination in schools and are exploited in the workplace. In many countries, they are not even allowed to study their own languages in school. Sacred lands and objects are plundered from them through unjust treaties. National governments continue to deny indigenous peoples the right to live in and manage their traditional lands; often implementing policies to exploit the lands that sustained them for centuries.Over and over, governments around the world have displayed an utter lack of respect for indigenous values, traditions, cultures and human rights. 4. Canaanites as Indigenous People: Israel’s task in conquest Canaan, across the Jordan was a land of city states. There was no central government, but there were many cities, each with its own king. The cities were built to withstand siege for months at a time. These cities, too, could band together against a common enemy, as they did later against Joshua, in both a southern and northern confederacy.Besides this, the land was mountainous. Once past Jericho, Israel would be in rugged country most of the time, difficult in which to travel and manoeuvre for war. They didn’t worshipped only one God, but they worshipped many, whom they called Baalim. The Canaanites were mostly farmers, settled lives in villages and towns. They were cultivating wheat, olives and grapes. One festival was held in the early spring when the first of the new season’s crops was reaped, and this was called the Feast of First fruits. At this feast the people ate unleavened bread for a week.It took about seven weeks to get in the harvest and, when all the crops had been harvested, another feast was held. Moses and his followers left Egypt, and Joshua with a second generation entered Canaan. They were not alone. It was a time of change, of migration, of destruction and turmoil a dark age that ended 200 years later with the emergence of nation-states like Israel. It marked the effective end of the history of the Canaanites. The Israelites themselves are portrayed as aliens both in Canaan and Egypt in the so called historical credo.Houten observes that the perception of aliens among the Israelites changes. She said, â€Å"One may belong to a tribe or a city or district or a country and through history the primary group to which an Israelite belonged changed. † Hence, after all these one may observe from their cultural, agricultural, especially their closeness to the land and their manner of life, it may be right to state that the Canaanite by virtue are very much the indigenous people of that era in that area. 5.Biblical Interpretation from the Indigenous Perspective: In Search of Methods and Approaches: The Bible has been interpreted from various perspectives with the new form of reading and interpreting. The book of Joshua which is the selected text for this study cannot escape from this scholarship attempt. In this regard, the indigenous people are also having their own lens to look at, when Limatula Longkumer therefore said, â€Å"Employing western tools and its framework of interpretation without relating properly to the social location of the people (present context) does not help us much.Western methods of reading the Bible are too academic oriented and theoretical which the general reader finds difficult to understand. There is a need to formulate her meneutical tools from tribal perspectives-from the social location of the people. † In this connection, B. J. Syiemlieh proposition though explicitly for the North Eastern part of India, but this is very much applicable to the indigenous people elsewhere, he indicated that, there â€Å"†¦are problems of contextual interpretation in the context of Northeast India, the problem now shifts to the search for avenues and openings towards a meaningful interpretation.In this search, it may be prudent to go back to the process of identifying and describing the determinants in the process of interpretation of a text which are the text, the context and the reader or the interpreter†¦ Hence, the implied reader of the new literary criticism and social sciences can be taken as the principles and methods of contextual interpretation of the New Testament in the Northeast India. † 6. The Conquest and Occupation of Canaan by the Israelites: An Indigenous Interpretation: Histori cally, during the Pre-Critical criticism Joshua is read in the light of theology.In the Reformation reading it was read with the perspective that God’s historically dealings and covenant with Israel were both preparatory for and analogous to this dealing with Christians. Critical interpretations were no longer looking for Christian doctrines saw in the book rather as evidence of the historical emergence of Israel. Modern literary approaches draw attention into the discrepancy as having as function in the meaning of the book. Finally, Sociological reading understand Joshua, not as the history of an actual conquest, but as the delineation of cultural, ethnic and religious boundaries.Applying along with the indigenous methodologies mentioned above, it is necessary to focus on the biblical event, and in the mean time to re-read it. As indicated earlier, aiming at analyzing the conquest of Canaan critically from the hermeneutical point of view, applying the indigenous methodologic al propose ahead, it is an insightful excavation. At the same time, keeping in mind the entire salient features, and experiences of the indigenous people in general, the encounter of the Canaanites, following are few of the comparative results: 6. 1.Canaan: An Indigenous Land that Oozed Milk and Honey: Milk and honey were regarded as necessary and choice foods in ancient Israel. They were offered to guests and given as gifts. One wonders, do the soils of Canaan really qualify as â€Å"oozing milk and honey†? Archaeological evidence has indicated that Syro Palestine was in fact a fertile land. â€Å"Oozing milk and honey† is thus a favourite phrase or cliche for describing the fertility of the land. Egyptian texts described the abundance of the region as: â€Å"It was a good land Figs were in it, and grapes. It had more than water. Plentiful was its trees.Barley was there, and emmer. There was no limit to any (kind of) cattle Bread was made as daily fare, wine as dai ly provision, cooked meat and roast fowl, beside the wild beats of the desert and milk was used in all cooking†. For those who were landless slaves, being freed to a land that oozes milk and honey, was a life- long yearning. The emphasis might not be necessarily on fertility alone. It could also well be an emphasis on an ordered and stable normal life. So â€Å"oozing milk and honey† could be a traditional and proverbial phrase to describe the normal life of the chaotic life in Egypt and Babylon.Life in the Promised Land would be a life of, for, and with the land and with Yahweh. There would be land, there would be work, there be food, and there would be rest as well, and they would run their own course. Everything would be normal. This would be even more desirable and attractive than a mere fertile land. This is also a common hallmark of indigenous land in terms of soil fertility, which attracts foreigners to occupy their land. 6. 2. Land Displacement: The Israelite oc cupation of Canaan led to intermittent fighting over a long period as the quest for new territory xtended into the period of the settlement proper. According to Martin Noth, this process took almost two hundred years, from the second half of the fourteenth century B. C. This verifies the fact that when Israelite’s get inside the promise land, surely there prevails the displacement of the original inhabitants. They were divorced from their own land. Similarly, in different parts of India, the tribal’s have become the victims of big reservoirs, mega projects, wild life sanctuaries, mines, industries, etc.They are forcefully evicted from their ancestral land and often without proper compensation. They are simply ignored, silence and despised. For example, one lakh people are going to be displaced by the Sardar Savovar Project in Gujarat, 60-70% of whom are tribal’s. And around 1, 30,000 are expected to be displaced by the Narmada Sagar Project in Madhya Pradesh of whom 65-70% are tribal’s. Being improvised and disposed, people flee in large numbers to the cities and the towns to eke out their existence around slums and shanties in abject poverty and misery. 6. Resettlement: Consequently, when there is displacement and departure, the problem awaiting the indigenous Canaanite is that they have to relocate themselves by any means. This reinstallation will aggravate the chaotic circumstances lying ahead of them. Searching for a new settlement is not an overnight play. But it is a process that requires several probabilities and also time consuming. 6. 4. Occupational Alterations: Among these ‘indigenous Canaanites’ there were formed pastoral nomads from Transjordan. But, envisages a gradual settlement of various nomadic groups in the course of an occupational shift i. . transition to agrarian way of life. This is an open impact of the Israelites claimed for the land belonging not to them, but to others. As a matter of fact, the re appear occupational alterations during that time. They can hardly adopt the livelihood of the indigenous people in that region which they newly settled. So, there provoke an alterations from agrarian to pastoral, and reciprocally the same from pastoral to agrarian. 6. 5. Religious Assimilation: Religious opposition belonged to that context. The God of the Hebrews was very different from the Canaanite deities.The religion of the Canaanite peoples was a crude and debased form of ritual polytheism. It was associated with sensuous fertility-cult worship of a particularly lewd and orgiastic kind, which proved to be more influential than any other nature religion in the Near East. The principal deity acknowledged by the Canaanites was known as El, who was credited with leadership of the pantheon. The identification of this God with El of Israel must probably also be understood as taking place only gradually during the military stage.The Canaanites they didn’t worshipped only one God, but they worshipped many, whom they called Baalim (a Plural word), and they believed that each piece of land had its own baal who helped it to produce good crops. The baal could be worshipped only on his own plot of land, and if a person moved to another district he/she was compelled to offer worship and gifts to the baal of the district to which he had moved. But with the arrival of the Israelites, it was found that the Canaanites on the west bank were capture with a belief in a new God, Yahweh.This continue to spread to the other parts as well, it was interesting to see that the Hebrew slaves fought not only for their existence or for their â€Å"religion† but for their identity. While achieving this, the victims were the native people of the land whose religion will surely be assimilated under this brand new religious practises and ideas. 6. 6. Infiltration which leads to Imperialism: There is a pattern of peaceful infiltration which is confirmed by the biblical stor y of the Gibeonites and the absence of any battles in the central part of Canaan in the Joshua stories. As propounded by The German school of Albright Alt and Martin Noth.Unfortunately this placed the opponent of infiltration at risk; usually this is not the end in itself, because in most of the cases, learning from the indigenous people experiences, wherever there is an influx it mainly leads to imperialism. There may be numerous factors which contribute to the increase of migration from one place to another. It may be political, economical, sociological, and even religious for that matter. In India for that matter, for a contextual introspection, As S. P. Sinha comments that, â€Å"In fact Christian missionaries are there not for advocating a faith but for keeping imperialism alive. Therefore, it is important to remember that where there is infiltration, migration, influx the end point is imperialism, colonialism and other form of means in replacing those who settle in that place . 6. 7. Cultural Confrontation: In the words of A. R. Ceresko, concerning the biblical event of the conquest, it is visible that there is cultural confrontation during the conquest, when he said, â€Å"The opposition of Israel to Canaan was no mere ‘war of religion’ It was not simply one religion facing another. The conflict was cultural; it implied all the economic, social, political, and religious dimensions of culture.Another civilization faced the city-states. That political conflict implied a clash of totally opposite conceptions of society, of clan egalitarianism versus a hierarchical establishment, of mutual justice against royal absolutism, of concern for the poor rather than the imperatives of production and the preservation of social stability. † Incidentally, there is an alarming cultural confrontation, which ignites during the entrance of the Israelites. This is also very common for the indigenous people as pointed out before, when religion can never be separated from their culture or vice versa.Therefore, if there is any transformation in religion, their culture cannot remain untouched. Interestingly, in the same manner it happens for the Canaanites, their occupations have been shifted, their religion was under attacked these evidently signify that there can be demolition of existing cultural norms and practises. 7. Contemporary Challenges: The experience story of Indigenous/tribal is colonialism and post –colonialism, alienation, discrimination, uprooted from their own land, prejudice, and stereotyping.There were destruction of Indigenous culture and social system by powerful and elite people with no exception to the white missionaries. Globalization is a threat to the indigenous/tribal people. In the name of development government machineries took indigenous people’s land and resources away. Today there are numerous challenges. A journey to build the nation on secular ideal and it is our endeavour to provide a j ust and adequate society for all. But the situation in the realm of economic change and social life has brought attention to some crucial problems and difficulties.In spite of signal changes in certain sectors in our society, poverty and misery is the lot of a large number of people in slums and villages. A majority of them are Dalits, the victims of caste system. It is incumbent on the Church to involve in this struggle, especially since the Christian Church has begun a process of liberation of the Dalit. The Church should own it and declare unequivocally its commitment to the struggle of the Dalits. Suppression is the main problem facing the indigenous people till today.In the search for a fuller life, justice and equality and to project our identity and land, people are involved in various uprising movements. Since the dominant societies do not listen to the cries and do not recognize tribal’s with human rights and dignity, some people have gone up to the extent of armed s truggle, as a result of which many innocent people have been killed and properties have been lost. In a context where people are systematically oppressed people seem to see no alternative, except to involve in an armed struggle.The Policy Makers, instead of recognizing the movement as justice issue, try to suppress the movement by army rule. In the process, many tribal dominated places have been brought under many laws. Being empowered to shoot and kill; to enter and search and arrest any suspected person without warrant, many tribal leaders have been shot dead, while many fled to the forest for safety. Many villages were burnt down to ashes, not only once, but three to four times. Such human right violations go on and on. Many continue to live in tears, pain, fair and suffering.Silent tears of the heart crying for a just existence have become the air that people breaths in and out each day. Reflection: After all these, we find that this account of the Israelites taking over of Cana an, throughout decades, it has been classically interpreted only as the fulfilment of God’s promises towards his people. This may be well accepted before, but the experiences and development of biblical scholarship leads to the profound biblical evidences. Perceiving things in a different way is the outcome of such research data. We can see that it was an august time for the Israelite after a very long journey.The leadership of Joshua is an incredible achievement. When they reached this land, they try to figure out a place for permanent settlement. They started finding their own way of earning and living. This event is a dawn for the complete capture of this foreign land. They were supposed to be strangers and aliens in this place, but it is only a matter of time that they can fully remove and replace the native of this place. There is always a tendency to reject the picture and suffering of the people of this land, who had occupied this land for centuries.The Canaanite was d ismantled from their land; it is really a difficult time for them to be alienated from their very own land. The land which they spend most of their living, their resources have been abducted. They were scattered for the cause of others. Their rights upon their own land and properties have been subjugated. It is beyond imagination where, the people of the land were deducted of their ownership and close relationship to the land. Exactly, the same way they fall under the umbrella of indigenous people. Bombarded with the same hardships and struggling against the same hurdles.This infected even their faith, worship and thoughts. Ironically, there was religious controversy when these foreigners enter their land. Together with this their culture and indigenous practices were drifted and get carried, by something which they may never embrace before. It is not an easy time for them, to control massive infiltration and the agony is that they were suppress and unjustly treated. Conclusion: It is very important to find out related knowledge about the journey of the Israelite. This paper has no intention of justifying any side of the coin.But the only aimed is to revisit and portray some realities, which were hardly emphasized. As a matter of learning, this study opens the space for an in-depth research in this single field. Which may serve as tool to draw the scripture closer to those people, specifically those who were neglected, ignored and hardly visible in this circle like the indigenous people. This may bring the relevancy of the text to the context of the reader. Bibliography: Abraham, K. C. â€Å"Towards An Indian Christian Identity. † In Christian Identity and Cultural Nationalism: Challenges and Opportunities. Edited by E. C.John amp; Samson Prabhakar. Bangalore: BTESSC/ SATHRI, 2008. Anderson, G. W. The History and Religion of Israel. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989. Broadie, Elsie. The Chosen Nation; Book one; Founders and Leaders. Headington Hil l Hall: The Religious Education Press, 1968. Ceresko, A. R. â€Å"Potsherds and Pioneers: Recent Research on the Origin of Israel. † Indian Theological Studies, vol. 34 (1997): 11-20. Convillle, J. G. Mc. â€Å"Joshua, Book of. † In Dictionary for Theological Interpretation of the Bible, et. Al,. Kevin. J. Vanhoozer (Michigan: Baker Book House, 2005), 400-402. Dias, Ivan Cardinal. Identities, Aspirations and Destines of Indigenous Peoples of India. † In Understanding Tribal Cultures: for effective education. Edited Joseph Anikuzhikattil et. al,. New Delhi: Commission For Education and Culture, 2003. Fachhai, Laiu. The Land Must Be Distributed Equally: The Promise and Covenant Aspects of Land in the Old Testament. ISPCK: Delhi, 2009. Gunneberg, Antonius H. J. â€Å"Israel. † In Encyclopedia of Christianity. Edited by Geoffrey W. Bromiley, Vol. 2 E-I (Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2001), 766-771. Harrison, R. K. Old Testament Times. Massa chusetts: Hendrickson Publishers, 1970.Hnuni, R. L. The People of God in the Old Testament. New Delhi: Lakshi Publishers, 2012. Ignatius, Peter. â€Å"Interpretative Theories of Israelite Settlement. † In Jeevadhara: The Struggle for the Past: Historiography Today XXXII/187 (January 2002): 95-106. Joseph, Pushpa. â€Å"Indigenous Knowledge for Survival A Descriptive Enquiry. † In Jeevandhara : A journal For Socio-Religious Research XXXIX/ 229 (January-2009): 74-87. Kaiser, Walter C. A History of Israel: From the Bronze Age Through The Jewish Wars. USA: Broadman and Hollman Publisher, 1998. Legrand, Lucien. The Bible on Culture; Belong or Dissenting?Bangalore: Theological Publications in India, 2001. Libolt, C. G. â€Å"Canaanites. † In International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia vol. 1. Edited by Geoffrey W. Bromiley (Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1979), 4587-4591. Longchar, A. Wati. â€Å"Tribal Theology: Issues, Method and Perspective. â₠¬  In Journal of Tribal Studies, vol. 1 (December 1997): 76-80. Longkumer, Awala. â€Å"Experience of the Context: Socio-Political, Historical and Cultural Context of the Tribal. † In Critical Issues in Mission Among Tribals. Edited by Awala Longkumer. Nagpur: NCCI, 2011. Longkumer, Awala. â€Å"Voices of the Indigenous People. In National Council of Churches Review (March 2006): 50-56. Longkumer, Limatula. Tribal Feminist Reading of the Bible, Tribal Theology and The Bible: A Search for Contextual Relevance. Edited by Yangkahao Vashum. Jorhat: Eastern Theological College, 2011. Majhi, Murali Dhar. â€Å"Cultural Rights of Indigenous People. † In Social Action: A Quarterly Review of Social Trends vol. 60 (Oct-Dec 2010): 405-408. Raj, P. J. Sonjeeva. â€Å"The Call of the Indigenous People. † In Asia Journal of Theology vol. 10 (April 1996):62-66. Rhoades, B. L. The Old Testament. New York: Harper and Brother Publishers, 1960. Rojesh, Seram. Whither Indigenous Peoples and their Culture? † In Social Action: A Quarterly Review of Social Trends vol. 60 (October-December 2010): 360-366. Satterthwaite, P. E. and D. W. Baker, â€Å"Nation of Canaan. † In Dictionary of the Old Testament Pentateuch. Edited by T. Desmond Alexander and David W. Baker. Illinois: Inter Varsity Press, 1984, 598-605. Syiemlieh, B. J. â€Å"Contextual Interpretation of The New Testament in Northeast India: A search for Principles and Methods. † In Tribal Theology and The Bible: A Search for Contextual Relevance, edited by Yangkahao Vashum. Jorhat: Eastern Theological College, 2011.Temsuyanger, â€Å"Israelite Tribal As Resistance And Revolt Against Domination: Some Insights For Coalition Politics In Contemporary India. † In Journal of Tribal Studies, . XII/2 (July-December 2007): 74-89. Thanzauva, K. â€Å"Tribal/Indigenous Interpretation of the Bible: A Keynote Address. † In Tribal Theology and the Bible: A Search for Contextual Releva nce. Edited by Ynagkahao Vashum. Jorhat: Eastern Theological College, 2011. Vashum, Yangkahao. â€Å"Colonialism, Christian Mission and Indigenous: An Examination from Asian Indigenous. † In Journal of Theologies and Cultures in Asia, Vol. 7amp;8 (2008/2009): 74-79. - [ 2 ]. R. L Hnuni, The People of God in the Old Testament ( New Delhi: Lakshi Publishers, 2012), 38. [ 3 ]. G. W. Anderson, The History and Religion of Israel (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989), 28-31. [ 4 ]. A visible manifestation to humankind of God or a god. [ 5 ]. Joshua sent an army of three thousand men, which suffered a severe defeat. Achan has sinned in the conquest of Jericho by appropriating for himself an attractive garment of Mesopotamian origin plus some silver abs gold. [ 6 ]. B. L. Rhoades, The Old Testament (New York: Harper and Brother Publishers, 1960), 95-100. [ 7 ].Modern Tell ed-Diweir. [ 8 ]. Hazor, which is excavated by an Israeli expedition under the direction of General Yigael Ya din, is located about ten miles north of the Sea of Chinnereth (Galilee) near the water of Merom (Lake Huleh) on a direct route between Syria and Egypt. Garstang (1926) identifies Hazo, the modern Tell-el-Qedah, as a typical Hyksos center. This large mound covers 25 acres. A huge enclosure, 2000 by 3000 feet, located to the north had an earthen wall around it about 50 feet high. This undoubtedly was the compound used by the Hyksos people for their horses and chariots when they maintained a strong kingdom around 1700 BCE. hat extended from Syria into Egypt. Since Garstang identified the destruction of Hazor with a date about 1400 BCE. and Yadin relates it to the thirteenth century, the ascertainment of the correct date will have to await further study. The last occupation of Hazor had an estimated population of 40000 Canaanites who extended the residential area to nearly 200 acres surrounding the city mound. [ 9 ]. B. L. Rhoades, The Old Testament , 95-100. [ 10 ]. Awala Longkumer, à ¢â‚¬Å"Voices of the Indigenous People,† in National Council of Churches Review (March 2006): 52-54. [ 11 ].Murali Dhar Majhi, â€Å"Cultural Rights of Indigenous People,† in Social Action: A Quarterly Review of Social Trends vol. 60 (Oct-Dec 2010): 406-407. [ 12 ]. P. J. Sonjeeva Raj, â€Å"The Call of the Indigenous People,† in Asia Journal of Theology, vol. 10 (April 1996):64-65. [ 13 ]. She connects them with their past (as the home of the ancestors), with the present (as provider of their materials need), and with the future (as the legacy they hold in trust for their children and grandchildren). In this way, indigenousness carries with it a sense of belonging to a place. [ 14 ].The idea that the land can be owned, that it can belong to someone even when left unused, uncared for, or uninhabited is foreign to indigenous peoples, they are holding land collectively for the community. [ 15 ]. Pushpa Joseph, â€Å"Indigenous Knowledge for Survival A Descriptive E nquiry,† in Jeevandhara : A journal For Socio-Religious Research XXXIX/ 229 (January-2009): 82. [ 16 ]. Ivan Cardinal Dias, â€Å"Identities, Aspirations and Destines of Indigenous Peoples of India,† in Understanding Tribal Cultures: for effective education, edited by Joseph Anikuzhikattil et. l. , (New Delhi: Commission For Education and Culture, 2003), 265. [ 17 ]. Seram Rojesh, â€Å"Whither Indigenous Peoples and their Culture? † in Social Action: A Quarterly Review of Social Trends vol. 60 (October-December 2010): 364-365. [ 18 ]. They believed that each piece of land had its own Baal who helped it to produce good crops. The baal could be worshipped only on his own plot of land, and if a man moved to another district he was compelled to offer worship and gifts to the baal of the district to which he had moved. [ 19 ].In those days there was no yeast to make bread rise when it was baked, they discovered that if they kept a piece of dough from one week’ s baking and allowed it to go sour, it would happen as this went on. If this went on it would make the bread unpleasant to eat. In order to break this chain and make a fresh start, week’s baking was done without the addition of any sour dough, and therefore the bread did not rise: it was ‘unleavened’. [ 20 ]. Elsie Broadie, The Chosen Nation; Book one; Founders and Leaders (Headington Hill Hall: The Religious Education Press, 1968), 71-73. [ 21 ]. C. G.Libolt, â€Å"Canaanites,† in The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia vol. 1, edited by Geoffrey W. Bromiley (Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1979), 4589. [ 22 ]. K. Thanzauva, â€Å"Tribal/Indigenous Interpretation of the Bible: A Keynote Address,† in Tribal Theology And the Bible: A Search for Contextual Relevance, edited by Ynagkahao Vashum (Jorhat: Eastern Theological College, 2011), 20-23. [ 23 ]. Limatula Longkumer, Tribal Feminist Reading of the Bible, Tribal Theology a nd The Bible: A Search for Contextual Relevance, edited by Yangkahao Vashum (Jorhat: Eastern Theological College, 2011), 140-141. 24 ]. B. J. Syiemlieh, â€Å"Contextual Interpretation of The New Testament in Northeast India: A search for Principles and Methods,† in Tribal Theology and The Bible: A Search for Contextual Relevance, edited by Yangkahao Vashum (Jorhat: Eastern Theological College, 2011), 42. [ 25 ]. J. G. Mc Convillle, â€Å"Joshua, Book of,† in the Dictionary for Theological Interpretation of the Bible, et. al. , Kevin. J. Vanhoozer (Michigan: Baker Book House, 2005), 400. [ 26 ]. Laiu Fachhai, The Land Must Be Distributed Equally: The Promise and Covenant Aspects of Land in the Old Testament (ISPCK: Delhi, 2009), 23. [ 27 ]. Walter C.Kaiser, A History of Israel: From the Bronze Age Through The Jewish Wars (USA: Broadman and Hollman Publisher, 1998), 145. [ 28 ]. A. Wati Longchar, â€Å"Tribal Theology: Issues, Method and Perspective,† in Journal of Tribal Studies, vol. 1 (December 1997): 76-80. [ 29 ]. Peter Ignatius, â€Å"Interpretative Theories of Israelite Settlement,† in Jeevadhara: The Struggle for the Past: Historiography Today XXXII/187 (January 2002): 95-106. [ 30 ]. Temsuyanger, â€Å"Israelite Tribal As Resistance And Revolt Against Domination: Some Insights For Coalition Politics In Contemporary India,† in Journal of Tribal Studies, . XII/2 (July-December 2007): 76-88. 31 ]. He was a rather shadowy figure who was worshiped as the â€Å"father of man† and the â€Å"father of year†. A stele unearthed at Ras Sharma showed him seated upon a throne with a hand upraised in blessing, while the ruler of Ugarit presented a gift to him. [ 32 ]. R. K. Harrison, Old Testament Times (Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers, 1970), 162. [ 33 ]. Antonius H. J. Gunneberg, â€Å"Israel,† in Encyclopedia of Christianity, edited by Geoffrey W. Bromiley, Vol. 2 E-I (Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Pub lishing Company, 2001), 769. [ 34 ]. Their offering was the fertility deity Baal, sometimes known as Haddu (Hadad, the god of rain and storm.He succeeded El as the reigning king of the Canaanite pantheon, and lived in the lofty mountainous regions of the remote northern heavens. A stele from ancient Ugarit portrayed him in his role of storm deity. His titles included the epithets Zabul (Lord of the earth) and Aliyn (the one who prevails), the latter being prominent in Ugaritic poetic literature. The theme of the Baal and Anat cycle was that of his struggle with Mot, the deity of misfortune, who had challenged the kingship of Baal. The latter descended to the Underworld realm of Mot, and there was slain.When his death was followed by a seven-year cycle of famine, Anat, the consort of Baal, revenged herself by killing Mot, after which she planted his body in the ground. Aliyn Baal then recovered, and a seven-year period of prosperity ensued, followed once more by the resurgence of Mot . The depraved nature of Canaanite religion is indicated by the character of Anat, the sister-spouse of Baal, who was variously identified with Astarte, Asherah, and Ashtoreth in cultic worship. An Egyptian text of the New kingdom period described Anat and Astarte as â€Å"the great goddesses who conceive but do not bear. The Canaanites evidently regarded their fertility goddesses as combinations of virgins and begetters of life, and they spoke of Anat in her role of sacred prostitute as â€Å"qudshu,† â€Å"the holy one. † This term is somewhat related to the Biblical term for â€Å"holy,† but it is important to realize that among Semitic peoples generally the idea of â€Å"holiness† was applied to anything that had been dedicated to the service of a deity. [ 35 ]. P. E. Satterthwaite and D. W. Baker, â€Å"Nation of Canaan,† in Dictionary of the Old Testament Pentateuch, edited by T. Desmond Alexander and David W.Baker (Illinois: Inter Varsity P ress, 1984), 600-605. [ 36 ]. Walter C. Kaiser, A History of Israel: From the Bronze Age Through The Jewish Wars †¦ 147. [ 37 ]. Lucien Legrand, The Bible on Culture; Belong or Dissenting? (Bangalore: Theological Publications in India, 2001), 6-8. [ 38 ]. Walter C. Kaiser, A History of Israel: From the Bronze Age Through The Jewish Wars †¦ 145. [ 39 ]. Yangkahao Vashum, â€Å"Colonialism, Christian Mission and Indigenous: An Examination from Asian Indigenous,† in Journal of Theologies and Cultures in Asia, Vol. 78 (2008/2009): 75-78. [ 40 ]. A. R.Ceresko, â€Å"Potsherds and Pioneers: Recent Research on the Origin of Israel,† Indian Theological Studies, vol. 34 (1997): 11. [ 41 ]. Awala Longkumer, â€Å"Experience of the Context: Socio-Political, Historical and Cultural Context of the Tribal,† in Critical Issues in Mission Among Tribals, edited by Awala Longkumer (Nagpur: NCCI, 2011), 36-37 [ 42 ]. K. C. Abraham, â€Å"Towards An Indian Christian Iden tity,† in Christian Identity and Cultural Nationalism: Challenges and Opportunities, edited E. C. John Samson Prabhakar (Bangalore: BTESSC/ SATHRI, 2008), 23-29. [ 43 ]. A. Wati Longchar, â€Å"Tribal Theology: Issues, Method and Perspective,† , 76-80.