Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Speaking and Listening Skills Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Speaking and Listening Skills - Assignment Example Therefore, in order to meet the growing demand, it is of importance to maintain ethical sourcing and trading in the cocoa beans production (Fair Trade Foundation 2-17). It is worth mentioning that the production of cocoa beans is largely dominated by the West African countries including Ghana which are economically not strong. Therefore, there is high possibility of the people to get involved into the unethical aspects of trading and sourcing. The ethical process of production and supply chain is important to maintain a stable market and price in the market. The cocoa industry has always been volatile as it depends on various factors of ethical sourcing and trading. The figure below demonstrates the variation in the price of the beans due to the influence of the ethical sourcing and trading. The volatility in the cocoa industry is more due to the alterations in supply along with demand, instability and speculation in the market affecting the ethical trading. Moreover, the conflict amid the countries giving rise to the civil war is restricting the ethical trading and supplies. The cocoa beans are traded physically and also in the commodity market. The futures market, speculation and hedging in the market affects the price of the products. The trading initiated in a transparent manner leads to ethical environment. Conversely, if integrity is not maintained in the production, it might lead to the unethical practices hampering the decision making process of the people indulged in the industry causing volatility. It is observed that the chocolate industry practices unethical means in order to gain profit by not only exploiting the labour but also paying less price to the farmers. The labourers are forced to work for hours and are also paid less. Besides, the ethically certified cocoa supplied is less than 5% which reflects the fact that the unethical practices are high in the processing and supply chain of the cocoa beans (World Vision, â€Å"Chocolate

Monday, October 28, 2019

Conclusion and if I could Essay Example for Free

Conclusion and if I could Essay The rate of reaction is the speed that a reaction takes place and how long it occurs for. Chemical reactions only occur when reacting particles collide with each other with sufficient energy to react. The minimum amount of energy required to cause this reaction is called the activation energy. There are different variables to consider when measuring the rates of reaction. These can include catalysts, surface area, temperature or concentration of the liquid. These being changed can either increase or decrease the rate at which the reaction takes place. Temperature: in a cold reaction mixture the particles are moving quite slowly-the particles will collide with each other less often, with less energy, and fewer collisions will succeed to occur. However if we heat the reaction mixture the particles create kinetic energy and will move more quickly-the particles will collide more often. It is hard to measure accurately the temperatures and will be hard to keep precise when obtaining evidence so I wont experiment with the temperature. Concentration: in a reaction where a reactant is low in concentration, the particles are spread out and will collide with each other less often resulting in a slower reaction. If the concentration of any reactant in a solution is increased, the rate of reaction is increased because the particles are more crowded together and will collide more often. Increasing the concentration, increases the probability of a collision between reactant particles because there are more of them in the same volume and so increases the chance of a collision forming products. (slower ifaster, illustrated below). Surface area: large particles have a small surface area in relation to their volume-fewer particles are exposed and available for collisions. This means that fewer collisions happen and therefore the reaction is slower. When we use a smaller solid reactant you are increasing the surface area and that makes the reaction occur faster. If one of the reactants is a solid, the surface area of the solid will affect how fast the reaction goes. This is because the two types of molecule can only bump into each other at the surface of the solid. So the larger the surface area of the solid, the faster the reaction will be. Smaller marble chips have a bigger surface area than larger chips for the same mass of solid. There is not enough variation available for this experiment so I wont do this. * Catalysts: a catalyst is a substance which increases the rate of a chemical reaction, without being used up in the process. It can be used more than once to increase the rate of conversion of reactants into products. A catalyst lowers the amount of energy needed for a successful collision- so more collisions will be successful and the reaction will be faster. Also it provides a surface for the molecules to attach to, thereby increasing their chances of bumping into each other. Catalysts are specialized so different reactions need different catalysts. Prediction: I shall be measuring how the change in the rates of reaction changes when the concentration of acid is changed. This change in concentration will affect the rate of reaction because when acid is diluted there is more space for the particles to move so fewer collisions take place. To make these experiments fair tests, I shall make sure that I measure all reactants and make sure the temperature of the liquid are the same. I shall take great care to make sure that no catalysts are added. I shall also make sure that I use hydrochloric acid taken from the same source to make sure it is as similar as possible but I will be changing the concentration of the liquid but diluting it with various amounts of water. I will be using calcium carbonate marble chips and hydrochloric acid to measure the rates of reaction and I will change the ratio of water: acid to change the concentration. I chose to do preliminary experiments to investigate the best amount of reactants to use in my experiments. I did 5 preliminary experiments and they all came out with various results. I came to the conclusion that 1g medium sized marble chips and 10 ml of liquid gave the best results. After doing the preliminary experiments I think the best result was the experiment that I did last. So I have chosen to use those variables in my final experiment. I think that when I perform my final experiment, I shall receive similar results to my preliminary experiment. To find the best possible outcome, I will repeat each test 3 times and will have 6 differently concentrated acid amounts. The amount of liquid will be the same at all times but the ratio of water and acid will change. I will record each reading at 20 second intervals to reduce an excess of results. Amount of acid(ml) Amount of water(ml) Concentration of liquid % Safety: To make sure the experiment is carried out safely, I will wear protective goggles, I shall tie my hair back, wear an overall. I shall also not sit down by the equipment while the experiment is in progress because if anything gets knocked over, I would have a delayed reaction and it would take me longer to get out of the way.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Léon Theremins Contributions to Music and Society Essay -- Biography

To start, Là ©on Theremin, originally known as, Lev Sergeyevich Termen, was a very influential Russian inventor throughout human history. He is most popular for his invention of the Theremin, one of the very first electronic musical instruments ever made. In addition, Là ©on Theremin is the inventor of a plethora of other inventions, some including the burglar alarm, the Great Seal bug, and the Terpsitone. There are innumerable interesting things that can be said about this innovative person. Without him, society wouldn’t experience, or enjoy the things we have, the same. This research will discuss Là ©on Theremin’s biography, his contributions to music, and his countless inventions that benefited, and improved society on a global scale. First, Là ©on Theremin, originally born with the name, Lev Sergeivitch Termen, was born on the year, 1896, in St. Petersburg, Russia. He was of German and French ancestry and had a sibling by the name of Helena. When he became seven years old, he took an interest in electricity. By the age of thirteen, Theremin began to observe and test high frequency circuits. Later on, within his years in high school, he was able to present to an audience optical effects using electricity, and by the age of seventeen, he had his own laboratory to continue his electrical experiments. It was very clear that the young, Là ©on Theremin, had a brilliant mind. As he grew older, he was â€Å"educated as a physicist and musician,† (Là ©on Theremin) and later began to develop what is known today as the theremin. After the creation of this notable instrument, the theremin, he â€Å"demonstrated his theremin to the Soviet revolutionary leader, Lenin,† in 1922. From there, he was sent on a to ur, which included â€Å"sell-out concerts,† (Là ©on... ...ame. Many of the things he created were considered unthinkable at his point of time in society and because of his ability to dramatically alter how we think of, or use the world, Là ©on Theremin, will be remembered in history, forever. Works Cited Wierzbicki, James. "Weird Vibrations: How The Theremin Gave Musical Voice To Hollywood’S Extraterrestrial â€Å"Others†." Journal Of Popular Film And Television 30.3 (2002): 125-135. OmniFile Full Text Select (H.W. Wilson). Web. 29 May 2012. WILLIAM, GRIMES. "Leon Theremin, Musical Inventor, Is Dead at 97." New York Times, The (NY) 09 Nov. 1993: 10. NewsBank - Archives. Web. 29 May 2012. "Leon Theremin." Hutchinson's Biography Database (2011): 1. MAS Ultra - School Edition. Web. 30 May 2012. "Clara Rockmore (1911-1998)." Computer Music Journal 22.4 (1998): 14. Academic Search Premier. Web. 30 May 2012.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Discipline and Punish: a Critical Review Essay

Overview The main ideas of Discipline and Punish can be grouped according to its four parts: torture, punishment, discipline and prison. Torture Foucault begins by contrasting two forms of penalty: the violent and chaotic public torture of Robert-Franà §ois Damiens, who was convicted of attempted regicide in the mid-18th century, and the highly regimented daily schedule for inmates from an early 19th century prison (Mettray). These examples provide a picture of just how profound the changes in western penal systems were after less than a century. Foucault wants the reader to consider what led to these changes. How did western culture shift so radically? He believes that the question of the nature of these changes is best asked by assuming that they weren’t used to create a more humanitarian penal system, nor to more exactly punish or rehabilitate, but as part of a continuing trajectory of subjection. Foucault wants to tie scientific knowledge and technological development to the development of the prison to prove this point. He defines a â€Å"micro-physics† of power, which is constituted by a power that is str ategic and tactical rather than acquired, preserved or possessed. He explains that power and knowledge imply one another, as opposed to the common belief that knowledge exists independently of power relations (knowledge is always contextualized in a framework which makes it intelligible, so the humanizing discourse of psychiatry is an expression of the tactics of oppression).[2] That is, the ground of the game of power isn’t won by ‘liberation’, because liberation already exists as a facet of subjection. â€Å"The man described for us, whom we are invited to free, is already in himself the effect of a subjection much more profound than himself.†[3] The problem for Foucault is in some sense a theoretical modelling which posits a soul, an identity (the use of soul being fortunate since ‘identity’ or ‘name’ would not properly express the method of subjection—e.g., if mere materiality were used as a way of tracking individuals then the method of punishment would not have switched from torture to psychiatry) which allows a whole materiality of prison to develop. In What is an Author? Foucault also deals with notion of identity, and its use as a method of control, regulation, and tracking. He begins by examining public torture and execution. He argues that the public spectacle of torture and execution was a theatrical forum the original intentions of which eventually produced several unintended consequences. Foucault stresses the exactitude with which torture is carried out, and describes an extensive legal framework in which it operates to achieve specific purposes. Foucault describes public torture as ceremony. The intended purposes were: * To make the secret public (according to Foucault the investigation was kept entirely secret even from the accused). The secret of the investigation and the conclusion of the magistrates was justified by the publicity of the torture. * To show the effect of investigation on confession. (According to Foucault torture could occur during the investigation, because partial proofs meant partial guilt. If the torture failed to elicit a confession then the investigation was stopped and innocence assumed. A confession legitimized the investigation and any torture that occurred.) * Reflecting the violence of the original crime onto the convict’s body for all to see, in order for it to be manifested then annulled by reciprocating the violence of the crime on the criminal. * Enacting the revenge upon the convict’s body, which the sovereign seeks for having been injured by the crime. Foucault argues that the law was considered an extension of the sovereign’s body, and so the revenge must take the form of harming the convict’s body. â€Å"It [torture] assured the articulation of the written on the oral, the secret on the public, the procedure of investigation on the operation of the confession; it made it possible to reproduce the crime on the visible body of the criminal; in the same horror, the crime had to be manifested and annulled. It also made the body of the condemned man the place where the vengeance of the sovereign was applied, the anchoring point for a manifestation of power, an opportunity of affirming the dissymmetry of forces.†[4] Foucault looks at public torture as the outcome â€Å"of a certain mechanism of power† that views crime in a military schema. Crime and rebellion are akin to a declaration of war. The sovereign was not concerned with demonstrating the ground for the enforcement of its laws, but of identifying enemies and attacking them, the power of which was renewed by the ritual of investigation and the ceremony of public torture.[5] Some unintended consequences were: * Providing a forum for the convict’s body to become a focus of sympathy and admiration. * Redistributing blame: the executioner rather than the convict becomes the locus of shame. * Creating a site of conflict between the masses and the sovereign at the convict’s body. Foucault notes that public executions often led to riots in support of the prisoner. Frustration for the inefficiency of this economy of power could be directed towards and coalesce around the site of torture and execution. Public torture and execution was a method the sovereign deployed to express his or her power, and it did so through the ritual of investigation and the ceremony of execution—the reality and horror of which was supposed to express the omnipotence of the sovereign but actually revealed that the sovereign’s power depended on the participation of the people. Torture was made public in order to create fear in the people, and to force them to participate in the method of control by agreeing with its verdicts. But problems arose in cases in which the people through their actions disagreed with the sovereign, by heroizing the victim (admiring the courage in facing death) or in moving to physically free the criminal or to redistribute the effects of the strategically deployed power. Thus, he argues, the public execution was ultimately an ineffective use of the body, qualified as non-economical. As well, it was applied non-uniformly and haphazardly. Hence, its political cost was too high. It was the antithesis of the more modern concerns of the state: order and generalization. So it had to be reformed to allow for greater stability of property for the bourgeoisie. Punishment The switch to prison was not immediate. There was a more graded change, though it ran its course rapidly. Prison was preceded by a different form of public spectacle. The theater of public torture gave way to public chain gangs. Punishment became â€Å"gentle†, though not for humanitarian reasons, Foucault suggests. He argues that reformists were unhappy with the unpredictable, unevenly distributed nature of the violence the sovereign would inflict on the convict. The sovereign’s right to punish was so disproportionate that it was ineffective and uncontrolled. Reformists felt the power to punish and judge should become more evenly distributed, the state’s power must be a form of public power. This, according to Foucault, was of more concern to reformists than humanitarian arguments. Out of this movement towards generalized punishment, a thousand â€Å"mini-theatres† of punishment would have been created wherein the convicts’ bodies would have been put on display in a more ubiquitous, controlled, and effective spectacle. Prisoners would have been forced to do work that reflected their crime, thus repaying society for their infractions. This would have allowed the public to see the convicts’ bodies enacting their punishment, and thus to reflect on the crime. But these experiments lasted less than twenty years. Foucault argues that this theory of â€Å"gentle† punishment represented the first step away from the excessive force of the sovereign, and towards more generalized and controlled means of punishment. But he suggests that the shift towards prison that followed was the result of a new â€Å"technology† and ontology for the body being developed in the 18th century, the â€Å"technology† of discipline, and the ontology of â€Å"man as machine.† Discipline The emergence of prison as the form of punishment for every crime grew out of the development of discipline in the 18th and 19th centuries, according to Foucault. He looks at the development of highly refined forms of discipline, of discipline concerned with the smallest and most precise aspects of a person’s body. Discipline, he suggests, developed a new economy and politics for bodies. Modern institutions required that bodies must be individuated according to their tasks, as well as for training, observation, and control. Therefore, he argues, discipline created a whole new form of individuality for bodies, which enabled them to perform their duty within the new forms of economic, political, and military organizations emerging in the modern age and continuing to today. The individuality that discipline constructs (for the bodies it controls) has four characteristics, namely it makes individuality which is: * Cellular—determining the spatial distribution of the bodies * Organic—ensuring that the activities required of the bodies are â€Å"natural† for them * Genetic—controlling the evolution over time of the activities of the bodies * Combinatory—allowing for the combination of the force of many bodies into a single massive force Foucault suggests this individuality can be implemented in systems that are officially egalitarian, but use discipline to construct non-egalitarian power relations: Historically, the process by which the bourgeoisie became in the course of the eighteenth century the politically dominant class was masked by the establishment of an explicit, coded and formally egalitarian juridical framework, made possible by the organization of a parliamentary, representative regime. But the development and generalization of disciplinary mechanisms constituted the other, dark side of these processes. The general juridical form that guaranteed a system of rights that were egalitarian in principle was supported by these tiny, everyday, physical mechanisms, by all those systems of micro-power that are essentially non-egalitarian and asymmetrical that we call the disciplines. (222) Foucault’s argument is that discipline creates â€Å"docile bodies†, ideal for the new economics, politics and warfare of the modern industrial age – bodies that function in factories, ordered military regiments, and school classrooms. But, to construct docile bodies the disciplinary institutions must be able to (a) constantly observe and record the bodies they control and (b) ensure the internalization of the disciplinary individuality within the bodies being controlled. That is, discipline must come about without excessive force through careful observation, and molding of the bodies into the correct form through this observation. This requires a particular form of institution, exemplified, Foucault argues, by Jeremy Bentham’s Panopticon. This architectural model, though it was never adopted by architects according to Bentham’s exact blueprint, becomes an important conceptualization of power relations for prison reformers of the 19th Century, and i ts general principle is a recurring theme in modern prison construction. The Panopticon was the ultimate realization of a modern disciplinary institution. It allowed for constant observation characterized by an â€Å"unequal gaze†; the constant possibility of observation. Perhaps the most important feature of the panopticon was that it was specifically designed so that the prisoner could never be sure whether they were being observed at any moment. The unequal gaze caused the internalization of disciplinary individuality, and the docile body required of its inmates. This means one is less likely to break rules or laws if they believe they are being watched, even if they are not. Thus, prisons, and specifically those that follow the model of the Panopticon, provide the ideal form of modern punishment. Foucault argues that this is why the generalized, â€Å"gentle† punishment of public work gangs gave way to the prison. It was the ideal modernization of punishment, so its eventual dominance was natural. Having laid out the emergence of the prison as the dominant form of punishment, Foucault devotes the rest of the book to examining its precise form and function in our society, laying bare the reasons for its continued use, and questioning the assumed results of its use. Prison In examining the construction of the prison as the central means of criminal punishment, Foucault builds a case for the idea that prison became part of a larger â€Å"carceral system† that has become an all-encompassing sovereign institution in modern society. Prison is one part of a vast network, including schools, military institutions, hospitals, and factories, which build a panoptic society for its members. This system creates â€Å"disciplinary careers†[6] for those locked within its corridors. It is operated under the scientific authority ofmedicine, psychology, and criminology. Moreover, it operates according to principles that ensure that it â€Å"cannot fail to produce delinquents.†[7] Delinquency, indeed, is produced when social petty crime (such as taking wood from the lord’s lands) is no longer tolerated, creating a class of specialized â€Å"delinquents† acting as the police’s proxy in surveillance of society. The structures Foucault chooses to use as his starting positions help highlight his conclusions. In particular, his choice as a perfect prison of the penal institution at Mettray helps personify the carceral system. Within it is included the Prison, the School, the Church, and the work-house (industry) – all of which feature heavily in his argument. The prisons at Neufchatel, Mettray, and Mettray Netherlandswere perfect examples for Foucault, because they, even in their original state, began to show the traits Foucault was searching for. They showed the body of knowledge being developed about the prisoners, the creation of the ‘delinquent’ class, and the disciplinary careers emerging. Criticism Theoretical arguments in favor of rejecting the Foucauldian model of Panopticism may be considered under five general headings: 1) Displacement of the Panoptical ideal by mechanisms of seduction, 2) Redundancy of the Panoptical impulse brought about by the evident durability of the self-surveillance functions which partly constitute the normal, socialized, ‘Western’ subject, 3) Reduction in the number of occasions of any conceivable need for Panoptical surveillance on account of simulation, prediction and action before the fact, 4) Supplementation of the Panopticon by the Synopticon, 5) Failure of Panoptical control to produce reliably docile subjects.[9] The first point concerns Zygmunt Bauman’s argument that the leading principle of social order has moved from Panopticism to seduction. This argument is elaborated in his 1998 essay ‘On postmodern uses of sex’.[10] The second argument concerns surveillance redundance, and it is increasingly relevant in the age of Facebook and online self-disclosure. Is the metaphor of a panopticon appropriate for voluntary surrender of privacy? The third argument for post-Panopticism, concerning action before the fact, is articulated by William Bogard: The figure of the Panopticon is already haunted by a parallel figure of simulation. Surveillance, we are told, is discreet, unobtrusive, camouflaged, unverifiable – all elements of artifice designed into an architectural arrangement of spaces to produce real effects of discipline. Eventually this will lead, by its means of perfection, to the elimination of the Panopticon itself . . . surveillance as its own simulation. Now it is no longer a matter of the speed at which information is gained to defeat an enemy. . . . Now, one can simulate a space of control, project an indefinite number of courses of action, train for each possibility, and react immediately with pre-programmed responses to the actual course of events . . . with simulation, sight and foresight, actual and virtual begin to merge. . . . Increasingly the technological enlargement of the field of perceptual control, the erasure of distance in the speed of electronic information has pushed surveillance beyond the very limits of speed toward the purest forms of anticipation.[11] This kind of anticipation is particularly evident in emergent surveillance technologies such as social network analysis. The ‘Synopticon’ concerns the surveillance of the few by the many.[12] Examples of this kind of surveillance may include the theatre, the Coliseum, and celebrity tabloid reporting. This â€Å"reversal of the Panoptical polarity may have become so marked that it finally deconstructs the Panoptical metaphor altogether†.[9] Finally, the fifth point concerns the self-defeating nature of Panoptical regimes. The failure of surveillance states is illustrated by examples such as â€Å"prison riots, asylum sub-cultures, ego survival in Gulag or concentration camp, [and] retribalization in the Balkans.†[9] In their 2007 article, Dobson and Fisher[13] lay out an alternative model of post-panopticism as they identify three panoptic models. Panopticism I refers to Jeremy Bentham’s original conceptualization of the panopticon, and is it the model of panopticism that Foucault responds to in Discipline and Punish. Panopticism II refers to an Orwellian ‘Big Bro ther’ ideal of surveillance. Panopticism III, the final model of panopticism, refers to the high-technology human tracking systems that are emergent in this 21st century. These geographical information systems (GIS) include technologies such as cellphone GPS, RFIDs (radio-frequency identification tags), and geo-fences. Panopticism III is also distinguished by its costs: Panopticon III is affordable, effective, and available to anyone who wants to use it. Initial purchase prices and monthly service fees are equivalent to cell-phone costs. In less than five years, the cost of continuous surveillance of a single individual has dropped from several hundred thousand dollars per year to less than $500 per year. Surveillance formerly justified solely for national security and high-stakes commerce is readily available to track a spouse, child, parent, employee, neighbor, or stranger.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019


Kenaf composites experience a number of damage modes under dynamic compression loading. Therefore, in order to understand the overall behavior of the Kenaf composite, it is necessary to identify the different types of impact damage that occurred. Damage of composites such as cracking constituents usually occur and are not totally visible. To understand it, examination and analysis of specimens are needed. Microscope observation was used to observe the morphology of fractures of tested samples. This technique has been largely considered in various investigations of composites. The observed images of the fractured specimens under dynamic compressive test are shown in figure 9. On the top surface, it can be seen that the impact damage spreads throughout the specimen. These damage modes include degradation of the fiber/matrix bond strength and eventual debonding, matrix cracks, and fiber splitting, resulting in overall stiffness and strength degradation of the composite. This failure of the matrix material can originate from various loading conditions. In all cases, cracks initiate or propagate within the matrix or at the interface between fiber and matrix, if the respective loading condition of normal stresses or shear stresses exceeds the local strength of the matrix or interface, respectively. While bulk of the failure involves cracking of matrix, or interface debonding, fiber splitting may occur especially if fiber itself is weak in transverse direction, and the unidirectional composite is highly aligned in transverse direction. Referring to Fig. 7, longitudinal ply splitting or matrix fractures parallel to the fibre direction occurs and extends from the top and to the bottom surfaces. So, at the moment of impact, stress concentration is generated at the contact point where the matrix cracks and fiber bundles split. On the one hand, the stress wave propagates along the fiber direction, the fiber bundles act as the main load-bearing object, and fewer cracks can be seen along the longitudinal direction. Moreover, Figs. 9 shows a higher extent of fiber splitting and bending, which confirmed lower fiber-matrix adhesion, also indicates fibers were carrying higher load share than matrix (Ku et al. 2011).Based on the results of the experimental investigation, bonding at the fiber-matrix interface is identified as the dominant compressive failure mechanism in Kenaf composites which controlling the mechanical performance. Previous study have also shown that debonding of the fiber/matrix interface has caused substantial degradation in the transverse response of a composite, resulting in an early degradation in the stress-strain curve [33]. Besides, multiaxial tests conducted by Lissenden, et al. [34] on SiCTi tubular specimens revealed that fiber/matrix interfacial debonding plays an important role in the axial shear response. The mechanical properties of natural fibre reinforced composites highly depend on the interface adhesion property between the fibres and the polymer matrix as have been reported by many researchers [5–8]

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Socharstvo Essays - Free Essays, Term Papers, Research Papers

Socharstvo Essays - Free Essays, Term Papers, Research Papers Socharstvo - studia udskej postavy poda modelu - pozornos sa venuje idealnym proporciam =poda vzoru antiky - vychodisko: anatomia, pohybova stranka tela - princip zlateho rezu - snaha oddeli sochy od architektury ajej samostatne uplatnenie vpriestore -socha= samostatne dielo, ktore sa stava sucasou architektury material: kov, kame, mramor, palena hlina - MICHELANGELO: DAVID... Maliarstvo -Architektura: exterier- SGRAFITY /vyskrabavanie viacerych vrstiev omietky/ interier - maba Vytvarne umenie: -spociatku vplyv gotiky ZNAKY = geometricky konstruovana perspektiva - iluzia hbky =zobrazovanie ziveho pohybu audskeho tela na zaklade poznatkov zanatomie =ideal krasy: clovek plny zivota aoptimizmu, usachtile postavy krasne vduchu kalokagatie =priestorova hbka =studium prirody =svetlo atie =realisticky nazor na zivot =objavenie perspektivy= opticky jav, ktory vznika zobrazenim trojrozmerneho sveta na dvojrozmernu plochu tak, ako ho vidime vskutocnosti =objekty sa smerom do diaky zmensuju arovnobezky smerom khorizontu sa zbiehaju =bod, vktorom sa stretavaju, sa nazyva ubeznik TECHNIKA= freska, sgrafito, olejomaba CIE= snaha zachyti obraz tak, aby zodpovedal skutocnosti Vyznamny predstavitelia -umelci, vsestranne nadani LEON BARISTA ALBERTI -florentsky ucenec, architekt, teoretik -posobil vo Florencii, Rimini, Mantove FRA ANGELICO - florentsky maliar ranej renesancie - lyricky zobrazoval naboz. temy - nastenna aoltarna maba PAOLO UCCELLI - Poovacka vlese FILIPPA BRUNELLESCHI -florentsky sochar aarchitekt - zakladate atvorca renesancnej architektury -jednoduchy harmonicky asvetelny priestor - Chram San Lorenzo, kupola Domu St. Maria del Fiore vo Florencii LEONARDO DA VINCI -taliansky maliar, sochar, architekt, vynalezca, hudobnik, vedec, teoretik umenia - bol ziakom Andreu Verrocchia - studoval prirodu, robil pitvy ana ich zaklade anatomicke studie -udske telo= najdokonalejsi pristroj, vychadzal zneho aj pri tvorbe hudobnych nastrojov - jeho kresba poda Vitruvia - Homo quadratus, vktorej hada paralely medzi proporciami udskeho tela ageometr. tvarmi -bol zakladateom vedeckej atechnickej ilustracie - navrhoval lietajuce stroje / zo skumania vtacich kridel / - vymysal parne dela, loziska mechanickych guocok - za najvyssie umenie povazoval maliarstvo, pretoze dokaze najvierohodnejsie napodobni prirodu -pouzival sfumato- jemne prechody medzi tieom asvetlom atzv. leonardovsky usmev TVORBA: MONA LISA (La Giocconda), DAMA SHRANOSTAJOM, SV. JAN KRSTITE, POSLEDNA VECERA MICHELANGELLO BUANAROTTI -florentsky maliar, sochar, architekt, basnik - fresky vSIXTINSKEJ KAPLNKE vo Vatikane -plastickos, modelovana svetlom atieom, dokonaly pohyb, dynamika -namety : strop Genesis -fresky su syntezou kresanstva, antiky aj vplyv Danteho Bozskej komedie -vytvoril zaklad noveho slohu - baroka - pokracoval vstavbe Chramu sv. Petra vRime - kupola -budova Bibliotheca Laurenziana vo Florencii - SOCHY: Pieta, David, Mojzis SANDRO BOTICCELLI -bibl. namety- naboz. sceny - neskor socialne motivy - alegorie- PRIMAVERA, pribehy zantickej mytologie ZRODENIE VENUSE - kresba, pouziva tenke ciary, zobrazuje detaily, pouziva tlmenu farebnos - vytvoril ideal zenskej krasy - vytvaral symbolicke alegorie -dekorativnos malieb - postavy- zachytene velegantnych pohyboch amaju rozviate draperie

Monday, October 21, 2019

Audrey Hepburn 7 Essays

Audrey Hepburn 7 Essays Audrey Hepburn 7 Essay Audrey Hepburn 7 Essay Audrey Hepburn was born on May 4, 1929 in Brussels, Belgium. She really was blue-blood from the beginning with her father, a wealthy English banker, and her mother, a Dutch baroness. After her parents divorced, Audrey went to London with her mother where she went to a private girls school. Later, when her mother moved back to the Netherlands, she attended private schools as well. While vacationing with her mother in Arnhem, Holland, Hitlers army took over the town. It was here that she fell on hard times during the Nazi occupation. Audrey suffered from depression and malnutrition. After the liberation, Audrey went to a ballet school in London on a scholarship and later began a modeling career. As a model, she was graceful and, it seemed, she had found her niche in life until the film producers came calling. After being spotted modeling by a producer, she was signed to a bit part in the European film Nederlands in 7 lessen (1948) in 1948. Later, she had a speaking role in the 1951 film, Young Wives Tale (1951) as Eve Lester. The part still wasnt much, so she headed to America to try her luck there. Audrey gained immediate prominence in the US with her role in Roman Holiday (1953) in 1953. This film turned out to be a smashing success as she won an Oscar as Best Actress. This gained her enormous popularity and more plum roles. One of the reasons for her popularity was the fact that she was so elf-like and had class, unlike the sex-goddesses of the time. Roman Holiday (1953) was followed by another similarly wonderful performance in the 1957 classic Funny Face (1957). Sabrina (1954), in 1954, for which she received another Academy nomination, and Love in the Afternoon (1957), in 1957, also garnered rave reviews. In 1959, she received yet another nomination for her role in The Nuns Story (1959). Audrey reached the pinnacle of her career when she played Holly Golightly in the delightful film Breakfast at Tiffanys (1961) in 1961. For this she received another nomination. She scored commercial success again in the espionage caper Charade (1963). One of Audreys most radiant roles was in the fine production of My Fair Lady (1964) in 1964. Her co-star, Rex Harrison, once was asked to identify his favorite leading lady. Without hesitation, he replied, Audrey Hepburn in My Fair Lady. After a couple of other movies, most notably Two for the Road (1967), she hit pay dirt and another nomination in 1967s Wait Until Dark (1967). By the end of the sixties, after her divorce from actor Mel Ferrer, Audrey decided to retire while she was on top. Later she married Dr. Andrea Dotti. From time to time, she would appear on the silver screen. One film of note was Robin and Marian (1976), with Sean Connery in 1976. In 1988, Audrey became a special ambassador to the United Nations UNICEF fund helping children in Latin America and Africa, a position she retained until 1993. She was named to Peoples magazine as one of the 50 most beautiful people in the world. Her last film was Always (1989) in 1989. Audrey Hepburn died on January 20, 1993 in Tolochnaz, Switzerland, from colon cancer. She had made a total of 31 high quality movies. Her elegance and style will always be remembered in film history as evidenced by her being named in Empire magazines The Top 100 Movie Stars of All Time.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Why Principals Must Build Relationships with Parents

Why Principals Must Build Relationships with Parents Much has been made about the need for teachers to foster healthy relationships with the parents of their students. Likewise, a principal must seek out opportunities to build cooperative relationships with parents.   Though the relationship between principal and parents are much more distant than the relationship between teacher and parents, there is still considerable value there.   Principals who embrace the opportunity to build the relationships with parents will find it to be a worthwhile investment.   Relationships Build Respect Parents may not always agree with your decisions, but when they respect you, it makes those disagreements easier.   Garnering parental respect helps to make those tough decisions a little easier. Principals are not perfect, and all their decisions will not turn to gold. Being respected gives principals a little latitude when they do fail. Furthermore, if the parents respect you, the students will respect you.   This alone makes any time invested in building relationships with parents worthwhile. Relationships BuildTrust Trust is sometimes the most difficult thing to earn. Parents are often skeptical. They want to know that you have the best interests of their children at heart.   Trust happens when parents bring issues or concerns to you and know when they leave your office that it is going to be addressed. The benefits of earning a parent’s trust are fantastic. Trust gives you the leeway to make decisions without looking over your shoulder, worrying about being questioned, or having to defend it.   Relationships Allow for Honest Feedback Perhaps the biggest benefit of having a relationship with parents is that you can solicit feedback from them on a wide variety of school-related issues.   A good principal seeks out honest feedback. They want to know what works well, but they also want to know what needs to be fixed.   Taking this feedback and examining it further can spark great changes in a school. Parents have great ideas. Many will never express those ideas because they do not have a relationship with a principal.   Principals must be okay with asking the tough questions, but also receiving the tough answers.   We may not like everything we hear, but having feedback can challenge the way we think and ultimately make our school better. Relationships Make Your Job Easier A principal’s job is difficult.   Nothing is predictable. Each day brings about new and unexpected challenges.   When you have healthy relationships with parents, it simply makes your job easier.   Calling a parent about a student discipline issue becomes much easier when there is a healthy relationship there.   Making decisions, in general, become easier when you know that parents respect you and trust you enough to do your job that they are not going to be beating down your door and questioning your every move. Strategies for Principals to Build Relationships with Parents Principals spend a large amount of time after school at extra-curricular activities. This is a great opportunity to reach out and build informal relationships with parents.   Great principals are adept at finding common ground or mutual interests with almost any parent.   They can talk about anything from the weather to politics to sports.   Having these conversations helps parents see you as a real person and not just as a figurehead for the school.   They see you in part as the person who really likes the Dallas Cowboys as opposed to the guy that’s out to get my kid. Knowing something personal about you will make it easier to trust and respect you. One simple strategy for building relationships with parents is to randomly call 5-10 parents each week and ask them a short series of questions about the school, their children’s teachers, etc.   Parents will love that you took the time to ask them their opinion. Another strategy is a parent’s luncheon.   A principal can invite a small group of parents to join them for lunch to talk about key issues the school is dealing with.   These luncheons can be scheduled on a monthly basis or as needed.   Utilizing strategies like these can really solidify relationships with parents. Finally, schools are almost always forming committees on a variety of school-related topics. These committees should not be limited to school personnel. Inviting parents and students to serve on a committee brings a different perspective that can be beneficial for everyone.   Parents get to be a part of the inner workings of the school and provide their stamp on their child’s education. Principals are able to utilize this time to continue to build relationships and solicit a perspective they may not have otherwise been given.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Critical thinking Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Critical thinking - Essay Example I was interested in determining whether media stereotyping of the Arab world was justified or not. The video allowed me to understand that the media portrayed a negative picture of the Middle East region resulting into possible negative implications on its relationship with western countries. It is through this video that I now understand that the media fails to demonstrate that there are specific extremist groups that mastermind terrorists and they do not represent the Middle East or Arab world in general. It is because of this stereotyping that the western society has negative perceptions and attitudes about Arabs. While watching this movie, I realized that the western media is interested more in profits than the negative social, political and religious consequences that they caused within the world in general. The stereotyping has for instance resulted in racist perceptions, which tend to associate Arabs with terror related crimes. The negative image on the Islamic religion, as portrayed in the western media has also caused general or global distrust and the widening of the gap between Christians and Muslims. This video influenced my learning more because it motivated me to conduct further inquiries into the historical relationships between the west and the Arab world. I realized that this relationship have been worsened by cases of terror attacks and the misleading pictures on Hollywood blockbusters. This is due to the reality that most of the terror attacks on western soils have been attributed to Muslims from the Middle East or Arab countries. The second issue that significantly influenced my learning processes during the course is the contribution of the Arabs towards modern civilization. My interest in the history of contemporary civilization caused me to inquire further into discoveries by the Arabs, which have made the modern

Friday, October 18, 2019

Myrrh (Commiphora molmol) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Myrrh (Commiphora molmol) - Essay Example and 60 essential oils are normally used by the professional aromatherapist, and most suppliers offer in the region of 70-80; these oils generally belong to just a few of the many plant families, and the families dealt with below include the majority of plants utilized in the production of essential oils’. Current paper refers specifically to the plant commiphora molmol (or myrrh as most commonly known) and its use in the area of medicine and aromatherapy. A series of clinical data is also presented in order to support the theoretical views that are related with the use of myrrh as a basis of several remedies applied in modern medicine. The word myrrh origins from the Arabic word ‘murr’ that means ‘bitter’. In Encyclopedia Britannica (2007) myrrh is referred as a ‘bitter-tasting, agreeably aromatic, yellow to reddish brown oleoresinous gum obtained from various small, thorny, flowering trees of the genus Commiphora, of the incense-tree family (Burseraceae); the two main varieties of myrrh are herabol and bisabol’. The study of Hanrahan (2007, 1) also refers to myrrh and its origin. In the specific study it is mentioned that ‘myrrh (also known as Commiphora molmol, abyssinica, or myrrha) is a close relative and member of the Burseraceae family, native to the eastern Mediterranean, Ethiopia, the Arabian peninsula, and Somalia; myrrh is a shrubby desert tree known variously as gum, myrrh tree, guggal gum, guggal resin, didin, and didthin’ (Hanrahan, 2007, 1). The most significant characteristic of myrrh is its distinctive colour. More specifically, as it is stated in a report published by the Tillotson Institute of Natural Health (2005), ‘myrrh gum has an intense dark color, reflecting its medicinal potency; it exerts a strong and certain action against specific types of pain and swelling, such as that of rheumatoid arthritis while it is strong enough to soften hard swellings and carbuncles;Â  like all plant resins, myrrh can also lower blood

The Benefits of Emergency Manager Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 2

The Benefits of Emergency Manager - Assignment Example The roles are explained in detail below. Ethics include enforcing justice and fairness, doing no harm, confidentiality among others (Coppola, 2010). Include a reflective section with a focus on the WMDs; what you knew about bioterrorism, WMDs, and nuclear or radiological terrorism; what you wanted to know about WMDs; and what you learned through this entire process. I have not specialized much in the in-depth knowledge about the WMDs especially the radiological terrorism as well as bioterrorism but I know a bit about the others such as chemical weapons and the nuclear weapons. I have known that these are the two most common weapons of mass destruction most likely to cause a wide impact of mass casualties and the effects are longer lasting than the other WMDs. They are also the most common ones manufactured and produced in many nations and a cause of concern by many governments (Wecht & Okoye, 2007). The information I seek the most about the WMDs is on the regulations being made by our government both the federal and state governments on containing these weapons and ensuring the protection of the people (Wecht & Okoye, 2007). This might be easy for the nuclear weapons but not so much for the chemical weapons as the chemicals can be obtained in labs including school labs or even in the black market in large quantities without knowledge of the government and this is a cause for concern. In my research and from the information provided by the interview, it is obvious that the government has put so much effort in trying to contain the WMDs from harming the people through liaising with several departments as well as universities and company laboratories among other different organizations to prevent mass destruction. I have also learned of the numerous safety measures put in place to tackle such emergency disaster in case it was to occur.

Thursday, October 17, 2019

International Business Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

International Business Law - Essay Example ase between Gupta and ACG, Gupta after receiving an invitation from ACG to purchase 10 MR5 computers is claiming a breach of contract on the part of ACG because of the latter’s action of selling the computers to a different buyer. In this regard, the following legal issues arise: first, was a contract concluded between the two involved parties? Second, was Gupta’s acceptance valid and has it been communicated to ACG. Third, was ACG’s revocation valid? Fourth, considering the aforementioned legal issues, is Gupta correct in claiming that ACG was in breach of contract? Hence, given that the aforementioned legal issues are concerned with the formation of contracts regarding the international sale of goods, the United Nations Convention on the International Sale of Goods (Vienna Convention) or Common Law can apply. In order to determine whether a breach of contract took place, one must determine whether a contract exists. For a contract to exist, however, it must be concluded through the valid acceptance of an offer (Art 14). In this regard, it is questionable whether the acceptance sent by Gupta was valid. Article 19  § 1 of the Vienna Convention states that â€Å"A reply to an offer which purports to be an acceptance but contains additions, limitations or other modifications is a rejection of the offer and constitutes a counter-offer.† In this respect, the words â€Å"on the assumption that† in the letter sent by Gupta questions the validity of the acceptance because it can be considered as a modification of the contract since there was no indication regarding the date or manner of delivery in the initial offer sent by ACG. Thus, since there was no contract formed because there was no valid acceptance; Gupta cannot hold ACG in breach of contract. In this regard, ACG’s revocation of the offer will hold. This rule is also similar to the rules under Common Law which states that acceptance of an offer must be communicated â€Å"according to the terms in which the

American Music History Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

American Music History - Essay Example This first part of the book also illustrates how more cultured music began developing in America through the formation of singing schools as a means of improving the music used in church and then how music began expanding to become more secular in nature as it emerged as a primary source of entertainment. Part two examines America’s shift to a more European form of musical expression in the addition of various complexities such as harmony and multi-instrumental pieces despite a continued love for earlier musical forms in the country and singing schools. Music became more varied as well, as minstrel shows featured white people mimicking the songs of the African American slaves and concerts grew in popularity. Soloists were fewer but remained popular, often touring the country to provide entertainment. From the culture of mixed musical sounds grew entirely new forms of musical expression such as ragtime, mountain music, honky-tonk, swing, jazz and the blues, which is the primary topic of the third part of the book. The country’s love for much of jazz music led to the formation of the Big Bands, which became popular during the 1930s and necessitated the creation of arranged tunes instead of the earlier improvised versions and the diversification of jazz overall. Part four highlights the influence of Latin dances on the American music scene and the ways in which country-western merged with jazz and the blues to create rock and roll. Motown, Soul and the British invasion through the Beatles and the Rolling Stones are included in this part of the book. Punk, New Age, Grunge, Rap and the introduction of electronic instruments are also discussed in this segment. Part five turns its attention to the entertainment aspects of America’s musical scene in things such as Burlesque, Vaudeville, operettas, revues, Broadway and the American musicals. The incorporation of music into almost all of America’s popular

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

International Business Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

International Business Law - Essay Example ase between Gupta and ACG, Gupta after receiving an invitation from ACG to purchase 10 MR5 computers is claiming a breach of contract on the part of ACG because of the latter’s action of selling the computers to a different buyer. In this regard, the following legal issues arise: first, was a contract concluded between the two involved parties? Second, was Gupta’s acceptance valid and has it been communicated to ACG. Third, was ACG’s revocation valid? Fourth, considering the aforementioned legal issues, is Gupta correct in claiming that ACG was in breach of contract? Hence, given that the aforementioned legal issues are concerned with the formation of contracts regarding the international sale of goods, the United Nations Convention on the International Sale of Goods (Vienna Convention) or Common Law can apply. In order to determine whether a breach of contract took place, one must determine whether a contract exists. For a contract to exist, however, it must be concluded through the valid acceptance of an offer (Art 14). In this regard, it is questionable whether the acceptance sent by Gupta was valid. Article 19  § 1 of the Vienna Convention states that â€Å"A reply to an offer which purports to be an acceptance but contains additions, limitations or other modifications is a rejection of the offer and constitutes a counter-offer.† In this respect, the words â€Å"on the assumption that† in the letter sent by Gupta questions the validity of the acceptance because it can be considered as a modification of the contract since there was no indication regarding the date or manner of delivery in the initial offer sent by ACG. Thus, since there was no contract formed because there was no valid acceptance; Gupta cannot hold ACG in breach of contract. In this regard, ACG’s revocation of the offer will hold. This rule is also similar to the rules under Common Law which states that acceptance of an offer must be communicated â€Å"according to the terms in which the

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

The Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 Essay

The Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 - Essay Example Care must however be taken by policemen in the exercise of the powers assigned to them in the Act. This is because non-conformity with the specific terms of the act may bring about a criminal liability and on the other hand searching, arresting, detaining and interviewing suspects outside the provisions of the act may render the evidences produced inadmissible in court. Perpetrators of serious crimes like murder, treason and the like were being arrested without warrant following an act of parliament in 1967.Further update of the police powers relating to the common law ,particularly as contained in the act of 1967,were carried out by a Royal Commission headed by Sir Cyril Phillips. Following an upsurge in crime particularly of burglary and robbery in 1981 in the Brixton area, a London-wide campaign was initiated code-named "Operation Swamp 81" picking its name from remarks made in 1978 by the Prime Minister Margareth Thatcher. Consequent on the Act of 1967, 943 were stopped and 118 of them were eventually arrested, the bulk of these people stopped and arrested were blacks .This brought about an increase in the complaints about harassment and racism. Relations between the black community and the police suffered a setback. Stop and search powers given to the police in the Act of 1984 had a wide coverage .under this section of the act a constable is given the right to stop and search persons vehicle e.t.c at any place and time but however does not include dwelling. These powers can however not be exercised except on the grounds pf suspicion that he might find something stolen or prohibited in the course. The person may be detained for this same while this is being carried out. Riots in British towns and cities did not in 1981.Further skirmishes occurred in 1985 in which P.C Keith Blakelock was killed was killed. The location of the far-right British national Party in the southeast London in 1993 resulted in a massive demonstration that left Stephen Lawrence a black teenager dead. The Police and Criminal evidence Act has since undergone certain degrees of review .one of such reviews was the police Police Reform Act 2002 some of whose main provisions take care of annual policing plans practice removal of the bars on the employment of non-British nationals into the force A longer title for the police reform act 2002 goes thus "An act to make new provision about the supervision, administration, functions and conduct of police forces ,police forces and other persons serving with, or carrying out functions in relation to, the police; to amend police powers and to provide for the exercise of police powers by persons who are not police officers :to amend the law relating to anti-social behaviour order; to amend the law relating to sex offender orders; and for corrected purposes. e.t.c. In 2005 a further modification of PACE was made in the form of Serious Organised Crime and Police Act 2005 replacing nearly all pre-existing powers of arrest; of significance in this A ct is the new general power of arrest for all offences. Discrimination, unemployment and poverty were fingered by the Scarman enquiry as the major culprits of the Brixton riots. While dismissing allegations

Possible Risks Which Affect Computer System Essay Example for Free

Possible Risks Which Affect Computer System Essay Abstract The short report reveals about the possible risks that affecting the computer system in terms of data loss and malfunctioning of programs. By taking simple precautionary measures the unexpected hazards can be completely eliminated. The most significant preventive measure is timely backing up the data. The other involves physical safety and installation of anti-virus programs. One factor to be kept in mind is that without proper physical safety no data is safe, as the hardware parts including motherboard, processor, and storage system constitute a computer brain. Once the brain gets damaged the whole system is collapsed. Introduction Normally people never think of taking precautionary measures until they experience individual loss or feel the bitterness of unexpected disasters. This may also happen in most of the cases regarding back up processes against possible risks involved in information loss. There is no use of running after the data, which has already been a lost or taking bleak effort to regain it. But one has to be vigilant regarding the backup process by learning from the drastic experiences of others. If one realize about the importance of information stored in the system and feel the perspiration to create and process the data associated with it, he will never let it go by silly causes. Firstly he would concern about the protection of information by all possible ways. This short report reveals about the possible risks involved in data loss and the ways to eliminating those risks. Possible Risks to the Data There are several risks, which cause the data in the computer to vanish or to corrupt. Therefore different backup processes are to be adopted to protect data from different risks. Only a few numbers of backup processes are capable to handle all the risks and protect data loss. Here is a short description about the commonly seen risks to PCs. Hardware Failure It is termed as the most significant risk that may affect the data storage system. If a person is well aware of hard disk failure he never forget to backup the data timely. Disk crash may lead the system with irrecoverable loss of data and valuable programs. The other hardware failures include memory errors; system-timing problems, resource conflicts and power loss can also corrupt the data or damage the important programs. Ensuring proper dust free and moisture free atmosphere, timely scanning of disk, supply of uninterrupted power will minimize the above risks. Software Failure There is also a possibility of data loss due to software errors. It may be the result of improper or ineffective software design. Due to lack of proper logic and effective coding the program on execution may get hanged and because of that the data may get corrupted. â€Å"Some software bugs may be even more damaging, even causing the loss of files unrelated to them. † (SF). But rarely it happens. This risks can be eliminated by using of the trustful and reliable software. File System Corruption This problem generally comes due to the improper maintenance of system disks. If the disk is not scanned regularly there is a risk of transforming file structure used to contain information files and programs. It may cause damage of data and ultimately loss. Accidental Deletion It happens by simple mistakes of human as, rarely, important files may accidentally be deleted from the hard disk. By taking certain protection techniques and undeletion utilities the lost files can be recovered later. Proper backup of data in time and usage of proper undeletion utilities will negate the data loss from accidental deletion. Virus Infection Viruses are uninvited malicious programs that cause irrecoverable damages to the system files and important programs. The data loss can happen either due to direct Virus attacks or it can happen as a result to the efforts for removing viruses from computer system. By installing trustful anti-virus programs this problem can be eliminated. Other Risks Data loss due to physical activities of human such as Theft and Sabotage by dissatisfied employees is also a matter of concern. Same consequences are expected from the natural disasters such as Fire incidents, flood, earthquake, mud slide, hurricane, lightning strike, etc. at is on. Once the system is damaged physical no recovery can be expected from that. Therefore the only solution from the risk is to ensure physical safety of the system. So protect the systems from the possible physical hazards keep it physically as well as functionally safe. Work cited SFSource : Software Failures ; http://www. pcguide. com/care/bu/risks. htm

Monday, October 14, 2019

The Dutch Disease: Lessons from Norway

The Dutch Disease: Lessons from Norway Methodology This research has exploratory and its empirical object is the Dutch Disease healing process by other countries and through this information offer solutions for Nigeria. The methodology used is the case study and development analysis of the strategies used by other countries for the neutralization of the Dutch Disease. The study consists in a research approach method which is characterized by describing the case of an event and its implications. There are several types of case studies, but here is one exploratory case study in order to create a better conceptual definition and understanding of the cure of Dutch Disease. A literature search was performed from a review, using secondary data analysis. Studies on secondary sources involve bibliographic books and research already done on the subject under study. We selected some expert authors on the subject related to this step. We chose to work with significant authors on the subject for further study each of them. This analysis was organized into three chronological poles, as advocated by Bardin (2004): pre-analysis, material exploration and treatment of results, inference and interpretation. The first phase is characterized as the organizational phase and has three missions: the choice of documents to be submitted to analysis, the formulation of hypotheses and objectives and the development of indicators to substantiate the final interpretation. (Bardin, 2004 p.89). Finally, it was done the treatment and interpretation of the results obtained, in which the raw results are treated in order to be meaningful and valid. (Bardin, 2004, p.95). Thus found significant results that indicate how to neutralize the Dutch in Nigeria, as proposed for the work. Bardin (2004) points out, however, that the results obtained may have a different outcome to the goal initially presented, serving as a basis for further analysis arranged around new theoretical dimensions, or practiced thanks to different techniques. Finally, a conclusion is made about the Dutch Disease by the authors of this work, assessing all the information collected and selected. Norway Norway for decades was the poorest country of the Scandinavian region. However, in the recent economic history the country has been distinguished from the others presenting higher GDP growth compared to the rest of Europe and other developed countries such as United States, as presented in the graph below. This turn of events is conventionally attributed to Norway’s oil discovery in 1969 and subsequent extraction from 1971. In 2012, the petroleum sector represented more than 23 per cent of the country’s total value creation. The revenues from the petroleum sector constitute 30 percent of the state revenues. Today Norway is the 7th largest exporter of oil and the 3rd largest producer of gas in the world. With per capita GDP around $100,000, the Norwegian lifestyle has become such that the work week averages less than 33 hours, one of the lowest in the world, and while unemployment is low, there is large underemployment, made possible by benefits. GDP Growth Source: OECD (2015) However, it is insufficient in explaining the Norwegian economic growth pointing to oil revenues as it was previously explained in detail about the negative relationship between resource wealth and wealth caused by the economic illness of Dutch Disease. In fact, Norway have managed successfully its oil wealth and avoided falling into trap of natural curse. Larsen (2004) explains the change in the speed of growth in the decade after starting the exploration of oil was consistent with symptoms of Dutch Disease, however, continued growing over the two subsequent decades. This is an evidence of an escape from Resource Curse; thus, Norway did not experience retardation from mid-70s to mid-90s. Mehlum, Moene and Torvik (2006) pointed to Norway and other few countries as the only ones that were able to counteract the resource curse and the rent-seeking activities that are usually associated with it. Fosu (2012, pg. 45) argued that Norway escaped from Dutch Disease for several reasons: Norway has a history of natural resource management and integration with other industries through various linkages; The institutions already were developed to handle shocks to the economy such as large changes in terms of trades; The revenues from oil extraction were gradually separated from spending these rents by establishing a buffer fund that helped to stabilize the economy; According these rents from oil exportation became more significant, the buffer fund became larger and a new fiscal policy was implemented in 2001; This fund invested abroad and the returns are used to finance public expenditure with less deadweight loss. In 1996 the Norwegian government signed the Petroleum Act which constitutes the legal basis for the regulation of petroleum sector. In principle, it stated the rent from oil and gas belongs to the Norwegian people through their government. Gylfason (2001) describes that as the Norwegian government has high interest in controlling the oil sector, has decided to expropriate the oil and gas rent through taxes and fees. The State awards a small fee to domestic and foreign oil companies and receives roughly 40 percent of all produced through direct partnership with licensees, taxes and fees that corresponded to about 80 of the resource rent since 1980. Bresser-Pereira (2008) in its paper about a Ricardian approach of Dutch Disease describes that the severity of the natural curse varies according to the difference between the exchange rate equilibrium of the â€Å"market rate† and the â€Å"industrial rate†. The author points to the management of exchange rate through export tax on the commodities as the principal instrument for neutralization of Dutch Disease. Furthermore, the author argues that the resources from tax created to neutralize the natural curse should not be invested in the country but in international fund; therefore, the inflow of resources does not entail the revaluation of the local currency. Bresser-Pereira (2008) explains that Norway by imposing a tax on commodities adjusted the exchange rate equilibrium bringing it to the same level of tradable sector exchange rate equilibrium; thus, neutralizing the Dutch Disease. Moreover, the new â€Å"adjusted† exchange rate will be more beneficial than the previous one; thus, the country will have a structural current account surplus. Gylfason (2001) also describes the oil revenues are deposited in the Norwegian Petroleum Fund allowed to invest only in foreign securities for the benefit of the current and future Norwegians generations. Only the real rate return of these assets is transferred to the annual State budget, according to the fiscal guideline, the government deficit cannot exceed 4 percent of the assets. This is also important to shield the domestic economy from mismanagement, waste and overinvestment. Larsen (2004) defines this shield important because protects the economy from excessive demand and real appreciation when at full capacity, therefore, reduce loss of competitiveness. It is also beneficial when it is not at full capacity to allow some increases in aggregate demand. Fosu (2012) described the two functions of this fund. The first is to secure that oil windfall is not consumed, but converted into financial wealth. The second is to separate these revenues from the domestic spending that would not vary according to the oil price fluctuation (fiscal policy). The idea is to have a stable spending of the oil revenues without interfere in the industry sector structure. Additionally, it helps to shield the non-oil economy from shocks in the oil sector, which can put pressure on the exchange rate. Brahmbhatt, Canuto, and Vostroknutova (2010) discuss solutions for solving the natural resource issue. They argue that fiscal policy is the most important instrument because can make the increase in wealth permanent as the same time as it can constrain the spending effect to reduce volatility. Spending policies toward tradable sector (including imports) and general policies toward improving productivity of private firms help to reduce the negative impacts. Additionally, the government can encourage demand for imports to reduce demand pressure on the non-tradable sector while mitigates pressure on exchange rate appreciation and other adverse effects of natural resource windfall. In the case of Norway we can see in graph below the country has stimulated improvements in the manufacturing sector that has increased its participation in the economy by 5% of GDP while the energy sector has fallen about 10 percent and non-tradable sector remained stable. We can infer that has an effort from the government to push the manufacturing sector through investment in education, business regulations, or reducing trade barriers and bureaucracy. Brahmbhatt et al. (2010) describes that these reforms have the aim of promoting foreign direct investment and create conditions for learning by doing. The exchange rate is impacted by the size of the non-oil budget deficit, or spending revenues as illustrated by Aamodt (2014). In short term oil and gas companies purchases NOK and the Norges Bank’s exchange transactions have influence on the krone exchange rate. Conversely, in long term is the size of non-oil deficit that affects the Norway’s exchange rate. The revenues from oil do not have an impact by the fact that all government revenues from oil are accrued directly in foreign currency. But the government appreciates NOK when sells foreign currency to buy NOK in an amount equivalent to the budget deficit. In other words the breakdown of the government’s net cash flow from oil sector into foreign exchange revenues resulting from oil and gas companies has no influence on the krone exchange rate. With the Petroleum Fund the government isolates the effects of oil shocks and the oil price fluctuations on Norwegian economy because the entry of money into the economy is controlled and planned according to the need of the country. The State can make long term plan regarded to its domestic spending and; consequently; maintain the krone exchange rate and inflation stable even when the oil demand decreases. Other factors were important to neutralize the resource curse in Norway as stated by Gylfason (2001). The author explains that Norway has a centralized wage formation system to limit general wage increases at the magnitude of productivity increases in manufacturing sector. This is possible because the trade unions are large coalitions of employers and employees that are able to consider aggregate interests instead of special ones. Additionally, both parts use a neutral agency to compute productivity increases in the manufacturing sector, institutionalize this information as ceilings of general wage increases. Therefore; the country’s centralized wage negotiation system contributes to prevent fast appreciation of salaries in different sectors. Larsen (2004) argues that income coordination is important as the public sector limited wage increases to the productivity growth in the internationally competing industrial sector. In other words, this income coordination neutralized the impact of externality in the manufacturing sector avoiding high inequalities between tradable sector and resource sector. This is an important factor for the neutralization of Dutch Disease as reduces the labor shift between the two sectors. The graph below shows the wage evolution in Norway since 2002 in which we can see that gap between oil sector and the others never exceeded 2 per cent in this period. Institutional quality is considered by Mehlum et al. (2006) as an important element to reduce the effects of Dutch Disease as natural resource abundance stimulates the shift from production rent-seeking to the activities related to resource extraction. The authors associate the lack of natural curse with the existence of efficient, bureaucratic and transparent government. They presented a model in which shows the negative effect of resource abundance on growth vanishes in countries with high institutional quality like Norway. The quality of institutions is also related to the corruption perception index as a measure of rent-seeking. Gylfason (2001) found a relation between natural resources wealth and increase in corruption and; consequently; decrease the per capita growth. In Norway’s case, the author showed that since oil was discovered, the corruption has declined and country’s GDP growth was stable during the last three decades. The graphs below shows Norway keeps a high level of freedom of corruption placed between 10 less corrupted countries of the world while economic growth spurted since the oil descovery, especially after 2000. Finally, the public expenditure on education in Norway did not decrease after oil descovery. According to OECD, Norway has an incredible 100% literacy rate and is third country which invests more in education, what proves the government decisions are not oriented to favor natural resource extraction instead of other tradable goods production. Gylfason (2000, p. 4) in its studies about the correlation between natural resources, education and economic development showed that countries with natural resources wealth invest less in education and; consequently; has a poor economic performance. Nevertheless, the author mentions that Norway is one of the few exceptions: â€Å"The Norwegians show no signs of neglecting education, on the contrary, as the proportion of each cohort attending colleges and universities in Norway rose from 26 percent in 1980 to 62% in 1997†.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Graduation Speech: Regrets :: Graduation Speech, Commencement Address

Let me begin by saying that I am very honored to be addressing the County High School Class of 2012 as students of this institution for the last time. We've spent these last four years creating some serious memories: four years of chieftain power, leaking roofs, questionable Homecoming skits, and musical principals. Four years of good teachers, bad teachers, new teachers, old teachers. Four years of youth, music, growing up and breaking free. Four rubber chickens, four yearbooks, four ASB presidents and four chubby bunnies. But consider this question for a moment: what is your single biggest regret from the past four years? If you could go back in time and change one thing, what would it be? I asked Ms. Parks to pose this question to two classes full of Seniors and I have here some responses. For those of you who answered, thank you very much for your honest and thoughtfulness. Now some of us, in pondering our biggest regret, probably think immediately of a relationship we've had. Here are some examples: "I regret having the same boyfriend throughout high school." "I regret putting so much time and emotion into one person, when that one person should have been me." A very common subject of regret was decisions people made concerning academics: "I regret screwing around during my first years of high school because I had to make it up and almost didn't graduate." "I never studied or did all my work in classes, and slacked off when I have the potential of a 4.0 GPA." There's a note at the bottom of this one, it says, "Oh, well, I've got another chance." On a somewhat similar note, behavioral regret made a strong showing among our class: "My biggest regret is waking up and not knowing what I did the night before." "Letting Robbie Ford eat crab cakes on Prom night." "100 hours of disciplinary community service." "I made so many stupid mistakes, disrespecting my friends and family. Thinking drugs were the thing to do. I was stupid!" Occasionally, we have had to deal with watching our friends struggle. By the time we summon the courage to take action or offer help, it is often too late. "I regret standing by and doing nothing while people I cared about destroyed themselves." "My biggest regret -- not forgiving someone before they passed away." "I regret not telling my best friend how much he meant to me, and before I knew it, it was too late because he killed himself.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Evaluating Internet Sources Essay

The Internet is a great place, especially for students, because it has a vast number of information that can be used for academic purposes. Young people are very much updated when it comes to technology and prefers to do things with their gadgets and computers. Due to this, most companies and organizations have put up a website over the Internet so that they can reach out to everyone, anywhere in the world. However, putting up websites is not only for legitimate companies and organizations. As a matter of fact, anyone can create a website about anything if they know how to read and click a mouse. There are numerous websites over the Internet that are created by people who pose as someone who is knowledgeable about a certain topic but is completely the opposite when looked at closely. It is therefore important for students to learn how to evaluate Internet sources if they are valid and credible to be used for academic purposes. Robert Harris from the website Virtual Salt has come up with ways on how to evaluate Internet sources properly. He first advises researchers to determine what kind of information they are looking for because this way, it would be easier for them to screen the data that websites provide. He then goes on to say that researchers should always look out for important information that websites should provide including the author, author’s title or position, author’s organizational affiliation, date of page creation or version, and author’s contact information (Harris, 2007). These would tell a researcher if the data posted on the website is valid and accurate enough to be trusted and used. Another important thing that students need to remember is the CARS checklist, which stands for credibility, accuracy, reasonableness, and support (Harris, 2007). While credibility seems very hard to check, Harris provides ways to know if a particular source is credible. First, the author of the website or of a certain work should have his or her credentials posted on the website. Contact information should also be included. This way, people who want to communicate with the author would not have much difficulty trying to locate the author. A website can also be credible by undergoing quality control. Errors, either grammatical or technical, should make a person suspicious of the website’ credibility. Researchers should also make sure that the information on the website is accurate and up-to-date. Thus, it is very important for authors and webmasters to constantly update their websites and see if changes should be made. They should indicate when a particular site was updated and created so that researchers would know if the whole website is still being monitored by the authors. All websites that tries to provide information to the public should never be biased. Content should be written with fairness and moderateness, according to Harris. He indicates that if there is some hint of one-sidedness, researchers should think twice whether they should trust the website or not. Finally, information is always better if there are evidences that can support it. This is not to say that every website should have supporting material just for them to be considered â€Å"valid† in terms of evaluating them. However, there are some things that need support including statistical data or current events and certain things that people say should be documented especially if they are known people. Many students are not aware that there are websites and other electronic types of information that should not be used for academic works. Some professors do not even allow their students to lift material from the Internet because of the damage it brings to their works. Still, it is hard for them to restrict students from Internet usage and this is why students and other researchers should learn how to evaluate Internet sources properly. Reference Harris, R. (2007, June 15). Evaluating Internet Research Sources. Retrieved September 15, 2008, from http://www. virtualsalt. com/evalu8it. htm

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Consequences of colonialism in India Essay

Colonialism of Britain in India impacted heavily on different levels of life and culture. The indigenous languages of the natives in India were being wiped out and the English language began spreading very quickly. The Europeans aimed at altering the Indian culture to more a European style. India depended so much on Great Britain for technological advances and manufactured goods because Britain used India as its market. India provides raw materials for the factories in Britain during industrial revolution. The goods manufactured in Britain were transported to India for marketing; therefore India’s technological advance was at purr with Britain’s technological on gaining independence. India’s economy deteriorated very rapidly because now it had to learn to depend on itself rather than on the other nations. Developments in India have been so slow and as a result India is still undergoing industrial revolution. Indians were treated as second-class citizens in their own nation because they were not granted their human rights in their own nation and were not allowed to hold government positions. They were paid very minimal wages than their European counterparts who they worked with on the same kind of jobs. They were used as slaves to construct railways, build roads and harbors and were paid very little wages. Colonialism in India led to mass economic bitterness and social- cultural cleavage. These led to creation of anti colonial rational liberation movements. These movements were aimed at attaining independence from the colonialists. Cultural and religious movements that aimed at emphasizing on a national identity based on traditions and cultural values were formed they fought so hard to retain their cultural beliefs and values. Great Britain assimilated the Indian culture making Britain a nation of diverse cultures because most Indians migrated to Britain. Britain is still home to many Indians. Colonial systems had a tendency of financing one ethnic, racial or cultural group by giving them a higher status in the society. As a result this led to inter group and tribal rivalries. This also created unequal distribution of resources. Favored groups were given the privilege of assessing important resources that allowed them to develop themselves at the expense of those outside the cultural group. This has led to the dominant groups enforcing political economical, governmental and social policies that led to unequal distribution of resources among their nations. The colonizers often violated the human rights of those people living in the colonized areas. This was affected when they enacted unjust policies that deprived the colonized subjects of their lands, resources, cultural and religious belief. They even committed murder against their colonies. These unjust policies were seen in the form of slavery, mass murder and apartheid. The colonial empires controlled and operated their colonized governments from abroad or through the use of a selected domestic privileged group . As a result when these nations gained independence they lacked the internal structure and institutions to create good governance systems. During the British Empire, there was an increase of population in the rural areas and reduced employment, which weakened the traditional status of peasants in rural settings . The loss of lands degraded the peasants to the status of squatters. This led them to become agricultural laborers in their own lands. The living conditions of the peasants were degraded when the prices of the basic necessities other than food increased. Economic development depends on available resources, cultural changes, transformation of political systems and ways in which society adapts to the requirements of technological process. Countries that embraced their colonizers culture and political systems adapted to a rapidly growing economic systems. China and Singapore were fast to adapt and learn the technological advances from Britain and this has put them on an economical fore front in the world. The legacy of colonialism left African leaders with a fear of any form of political opposition. These leaders sacrificed political unity among tribes for their own good. These political leaders made accumulation of power and political survival their priority at the expense of economic development. These political leaders sought to develop and increase national wealth rather than the people’s welfare. This has led to the dependence on the colonies and west countries for technology and development. As a result their economies declined at very elevated rates, they argued that western knowledge and development was superior their native knowledge and therefore they should do anything possible to adopt the western lifestyle. Colonization transfers wealth from the colonized countries to the colonizers leading to inhibition of successful development of economies of the colonized countries. Colonialists have used neo-colonialism to cause political psychological and moral damages to the colonized countries. Colonialism opened up East Asia to the agricultural worlds market and all the instabilities associated with the world market forces. Peasant farmers lost access to resources that had been an important element in making ends meet. The colonial system turned everything into private property pushing many people into dependence on wage labor. In Korea, Japan colonization destroyed the education system that had been improving positively. Most of the missionary schools in Korea were replaced by private schools that did not offer quality education. The education that Koreans received was based on educating them to become better citizens of the Japanese empire of a lower level. The education given only provided the basics needed for the work that they were to perform. Korean economy grew very well under the Japanese rule between 1910 and 1945. Both the mining and manufacturing industries grew more than the period before the rule, but despite this the Japanese held higher skilled and highly paid jobs. All the riches gained from the growth of the economy were distributed among the Japanese who owned most of the companies, while the Koreans remained poor in their own countries. Koreans played a very small part in the modernization of their economy. With the end of Japanese colonialism, the economy of Korea decreased and collapsed. Total industrial outputs decreased at very high rates when the Japanese managers and workers left, they also left the financial agricultural and banking systems in destruction. The Japanese colonial systems only favoured a few Koreans allowing them into government and financial systems that made them grow and prosper. However majority of the companies that did not find favor suffered and collapsed. Colonialism had a bad influence on the cultural identity of the colonized counties. This detached many people from their heritage and their identity colonizers have done first by oppression where they force the colonized regions to adapt foreign languages and foreign religions. Conclusion Colonialism had both negative and positive effects on the political, economical and social systems of the colonized regions. They eroded the cultural and traditional beliefs of the communities but still impacted positively on their economic growth. They introduced technological advances that assisted in developing countries economies. However I would say that the effects of colonialism in general were negative since they left scars in those countries that were hard to heal. Bibliography Atiyah Jeremy. The rough Guide South East. Asia. Rough Guides, 2002 pg. 230 Castle Gregory.Post – colonial discourses. Blackwell publishing, 2001p. 330. Christine J. Clive. Ideology and Revolution in South East Asia 1900 – 1980. Routledge, 2001 p. 39. Everett – Heath Tom. Central Asia aspects of transition. Routledge, 2003 p. 80 Goodwin Jeff. No other way out: states and revolutionary movements 1945 – 1991. London, 2001 pg. 200. Hack Karl. Rettig Tobias. Colonial Armies in South East Asia. Routledge 2006, pg. 195 Kiratoska H. Paul. South East Asia colonial History. South East Asia, 2001. p. 150. Lazarus Neil. National and cultural practice in the post – colonial world. Cambridge 1999 p. 45. Mendl wolf. Japan and south East Asia. Routedge. 2001 p. 55. Milton – Edwards. Contemporary politics in the Middle East. Polity, 2006 p. 46. Milton – Edwards Beverly. Conflicts in the Middle East since 1945. Routledge. 2001 p. 70. Pappe ilan. The modern Middle East. Routledge, 2005. p. 38. Schwarz Henry & Ray Sangeeta. A companion to Postcolonial studies Blackwell publishing 2000. p. 150. White Stephen. Communism and its collapse. Routledge 2001. p. 28. Young C & Robert J. Post colonialism: An historical introduction. Black well publishing 2001, p. 94.

My Ideal Partner Life

An ideal husband would be a person who is an ideal companion. Does it appear that I am running around in circles? I hope it does not. Through the traditional role of a husband is different from that of a wife,the qualities of a person are not sex-oriented,they are person-oriented. What do I want in the person I marry? My list may be a long one but it is sound in its priorities. I want the man I choose as a husband to be generous,to have a sense of humor and to be trusting and trustworthly. I would like to build our relationship on affection and respect and on complete frankness. A tall order? Let me explain myself. Affection and respect put together are the essence of love. They are more durable than the euphoria of romantic love linked to physical attraction. It is true that beauty contributes a great deal towards life’s pleasantness,but unreflecting,unthinking beauty has nothing to recommend itself. Respect in relationship is very importand,and note I mean respect ,note awe or fear or any other feeling but respect which includes self-respect and can be stretched a long way to cover the crevices or feelings. I would like my future husband to be frank with me and to discuss financial,emotional and other problems with me. for if there is any ground on which I cannot thread, or any occasion when I find the door closed against me,or any time when whispered conversation take place,or papers and letters are kept away,or I look askance and don’t get a reply, then there a lies the beginning distrust and rift. A marriage is a companionship,it extends into old age and can mature into a relationship where words need not be exchanged and still complete understanding my exist. It is a relationship which cannot be built on lies or half-truths. When I use the word ‘frank’ I do not only mean emotional friendship through they too are included. Is it not more grateful that my friends of the days when I was not yet married be known to my husband than that I spring a surprise on him or leave him to work his imagination in different directions? Similarly I would like to know about my husband’s friends-men and women. Frankness should extend to all money matters. I should know (and so should be) what our economics position is. A marriage is the basic of family,it grows and matures and strengthens over the years. It cannot do so when the partner concerned pull in different directions. A home is aplace where on feels there should be uneasiness,no appearances to maintain, where one should feel free to express onself and one’s own true self. This is possible if there is some basic enerosity in the members of the family for generosity backs up the desire to understand,to be less critical and more forgiving in one’s approach. Don’t you know that a grim man is stern and unforgiving? There are numerous little problems which can be laughed away. At times this capacity to take things lightly,to see the funny side of an otherwise grim situation may cement a relationship much more than anything else. Laughter keeps one young. It is the best medicine. So let’s live and laugh togethe r.

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

The Effect of Motivators on the Performance of Real Estate Agents Essay

The Effect of Motivators on the Performance of Real Estate Agents - Essay Example Given the above stated observations, one may surmise that real estate agencies in France have attractive profit-making potentials, insofar as they operate in a market which attracts both domestic and international buyers and investors. While that may be the case, the fact remains that the potential of any real estate agency can only be realised through the efforts of its sales force and its agents. As Davis (2002) explains, the performance of individual real estate agencies is inextricably dependant upon the characteristics, activities and qualities of its sales force with it, therefore, being incumbent upon real estate agency managers to deploy such motivation techniques and strategies as would incite performance (Davis, 2002). As may be deduced from the above, the dissertation proposes to undertake an analysis of the French real estate market and the performance of a select number of real estate agencies therein, with specific focus on the extent to which the deployment of motivation techniques may positively impact agency performance. The importance f the study derives from the fact that it will examine the efficacy of implementing motivation theory as a means of inciting higher sales figures and improving the performance of sales teams. ... Furthermore, while the study shall specifically focus on the mentioned in relation to the French real estate market, the theoretical models that shall be discussed and the recommendation that will be proposed, are applicable to the international real estate market and to those business firms whose performance is inextricably linked to the activities of its sales force. In other words, even though the study is of immediate importance to the French real estate agencies, its value extends beyond that to embrace real estate agency performance per se, irrespective of geographic location, and sales-based organisations and firms. Literature Review Numerous management researchers and scholars have emphasised the importance of motivation strategies as a tool for the maximisation of employee output and productivity (Igalens and Roussel, 1999; .Reinharth and Wahba, 1975; Kim, 1984). Few, if any, have disputed the fact that management's adoption of employee-targeted motivation strategies, especially as pertains to sales personnel, improves both individual employee output and overall firm performance but scholars, have, nevertheless, debated the most effective motivation strategies (Kallenberg, 2000; Wallace, 1995). Silvester et al. (2003) maintain that empirical evidence suggests that the adoption of any of the existent motivation theories and the integration of their incentive guidelines into an organisation's management paradigm positively contributes to organisational performance and maximises employee output. To fortify their argument, the researchers undertake a comparative study of the effect of the implementation of an array of motivation strategies and theories on employee output and performance, maintaining that the study

Tuesday, October 8, 2019

Experienced teachers make decisions about educational practice using Essay

Experienced teachers make decisions about educational practice using their understanding of a range of theories about learning. No one theory provides all the a - Essay Example There are four important perspectives in learning theories, behaviorism, humanism, constructivism and cognitivism. In education, behaviorist theories maintain that learning is the result of ‘operant conditioning’ which is a process and both investigated and named by B F Skinner. The word ‘operant’ is used to explain the way in which behavior of an individual operates in a particular person. According to behaviorism theory, behavior of an individual may result either in punishment or in reinforcement. If the behavior results in reinforcement, then chances of same behavior occurring again are higher, at the same time, if a behavior results in punishment, then its chances of happening again are very remote. But we should remember that the issues related to punishment or reinforcement are quite complex. For instance, a punisher or reinforcer is identified within behaviorism by its effect on behavior. So, a punishment may not be regarded as punishment if it does not result in the reduction of a specific behavior. Therefore, behaviorists generally concentrate on measurable ch anges on behavior. ‘Operant conditioning’ uses the consequences of behavior to alter the form of behavior and its occurrence. It basically deals with modification of voluntary behavior. It generally, creates five consequences such as positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, negative punishment and extinction. It is important to note that it is not the individuals who are reinforced or punished; rather it is his or her response which is reinforced or punished. In ‘operant conditioning’ context, the terms positive and negative are, generally, not used in their popular meaning, but rather positive means to addition and negative refers to subtraction. 4. Negative punishment: -It occurs when a response (behavior) results removal of a