Friday, May 31, 2019

The Platonic and Aristotelian Views on the Role and Status of Women in

IntroductionWomens rights and societal roles concord varied throughout history. Yet, a common theme that is notable across many multiplication and cultures is the notion that women are inferior to men. In ancient Greece, the opinion toward women followed this trend, and women were often overlooked in how they could contribute to society. It was rarely considered that the traits women share could be of use beyond their household duties. In this essay I will analyze the Platonic and Aristotelian views on the role and status of women. Although Plato and Aristotle had distinct beliefs on what women could contribute to the embodied well being of society, they shared similar opinions about the genuine status that women had in comparison to men. The Platonic view advanced the idea that secluding women to the home was counter-productive to the federation as a whole. As such, women should be afforded roles that stretched beyond the boundaries of the home for the good of the community. The Aristotelian view, contrastingly, believed that the natural characteristics of women, which deemed them physically and intellectually inferior to men, made the home their comely place within society. In this essay I will advance the view that through the logic constructed by both Plato and Aristotle it follows deductively that women not exclusively have a place outside of the home but their distinctive nature can add something of value to many areas of society. A Platonic View Toward Women A Community of Women and ChildrenIt is sometimes contended that Plato was a feminist, but his concern for women did not stem from an interest in womens rights, but rather the usefulness women could contribute to the benefit of the community. Meaning, society would receive... ...oes not follow logically that women are intellectually inferior. The nature of women that emanates from their traditional role as mothers and caregivers can in fact not only be sufficient but necessary for the optimal fu nctioning polis. The compassion and consideration that emanates from the nature of women could be the true keystone in wholesome state, and the highest arrive at of collective well being that Plato and Aristotle searched for. Works CitedAristotle. The Politics. Trans. T.A. Sinclair. Rev. ed. Trevor J. Saunders. New YorkPenguin classics, 1957. Print. Bloom, Allan (1968, revised 1991). The Republic of Plato. Translated, with notes and aninterpretive essay. New York Basic Books.Magnusson, Warren. Ancient and Medieval Political Thought. Political comprehension 300A.University of Victoria. British Columbia, 4 Jan. 2012 21 Mar. 2012.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Television Censorship Essay -- essays research papers

Television CensorshipWHAT IS CENSORSHIP?"Censorship is the supervision and control of the information and ideasthat are circulated among the people within a society. In modern times,censorship refers to the examination of books, periodicals, plays, films,television and radio programs, news reports, and other communication media forthe purpose of altering or suppressing parts thought to be obnoxious oroffensive. The objectionable material may be considered immoral or obscene,heretical or blasphemous, seditious or treasonable, or injurious to the nationalsecurity. Thus, the principle for censorship is that it is necessary for theprotection of three basic social institutions the family, the church, and thestate.Censorship and the ideology supporting it go back to ancient times. Everysociety has had customs, taboos, or laws by which speech, play, dress, religiousobservance, and conjure upual expression were modulate(Microsoft Encarta 95)."CENSORSHIP OF OBSCENITY"The begin ning of a new legal approach may be traced to the action of the federal courts in the 1930s, when they held that Irish author James JoycesUlysses was not obscene and could be freely passed through customs. The courtsruled that the use of "dirty words" in "a sincere and honest book" did not makethe book "dirty." Since the 1950s many obscenity cases involving books,magazines, and film have been brought before the Supreme Court. In the casesduring the seventies the court ruled that laws against obscenity must be limited "to works which, taken as a whole, appeal to the prurient interest in sex whichportray sexual conduct in a patently offensive way and which, taken as a whole,do not have earnest literary, artistic, political, or scientific value." TheCourt has further held that obscenity should be determined by applying"contemporary community standards" rather than national standards (MicrosoftEncarta 95)."WHO DOES TELEVISION CENSORSHIP inst all?CENSORSHIP AFFECTS MINORS AND ADULTS     Does censorship affect both minors and adults? One incident in Ohio leda mother of a 5 class old boy to believe so. The boys mother attributed hisactions to the influence of the popular MTV cartoon show Beavis and Butthead.In response to watching this cartoon the boy set his dwelling house on fir... ...censorship of television. The government of the United States ofAmerica has been getting very involved in what they think is appropriate to beon television. I want to slam why they get to decide what I want to watch. Ifeel that it should be a persons choice. They say they are concerned with whatchildren are viewing, or that many things such as nudity and swear words offendpeople. Parents should monitor what their children watch. If a parent does notwant their child to see something in particular, and then it is the parentsresponsibility to see that they do not, not the governments (Microsoft InternetExplorer)."      What do you think? Should our government continue to enforce televisionand film censorship as it has been? Or should all forms of censorship beabolished completely?THE PURPOSE     "It is the purpose of this Act to increase competition in alltelecommunications markets and provide for an orderly transition from regulatedmarkets to competitive and deregulated telecommunications markets consistentwith the public interest, convenience, and necessity (Telecommunications Bill of1995, Internet)."

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Essay --

1.Operational Strengths and Weaknessesa.Horizontal AnalysisThis type of analysis compares the percent and amount of changes from year to year. The analysis is performed on some(prenominal)(prenominal) the income statement and balance sheet to detect trends and identify any issues. This put forward be a very useful analysis especially when more than ii old age of data is available. With this analysis and various others a good understanding of how the telephoner is operating can be seen. Revenue SectionThe income statement shows both strengths and weaknesses. There is a jump in net gross sales from year 6 to year 7 by 33% this is a substantial increment for the company and strength. In year eight compared to year seven, the company has seen a decrease in net sales by 15%. Net sales show to be rather unstable and a possible source of weakness as well. The reduction in revenue is ultimately due to the real economic situations which could be attributed to funding cuts by sponsors for some of the riders. This kind of up and down in net sales may be common for the company over the years to come. The company should also consider having a product to balance this out. Since their main source of sales is a specialty item it would utility the company to have additional products that are more main stream to even out sales in the future. However, unit sales will to the highest degree likely stay below year sevens high of 4,342,000, it is expected that unit sales will increase over the next three years to make up for its decline in year eight. Cost of good sold has moved with the net sales, which is a positive none. This means the company is not spending more on products than sales allow, and purchasing is projecting accurately. However, there may be opportunity for the company to reduce the ... reduce interest can help increase this ratio, as well as increasing sales.Overall all in the ratio analysis the company has several areas of strengths and several a reas of weakness. It would acquire the company to reduce their expenses and increase sales to improve these numbers over time. The company is also struggling to keep up with competitors in several areas, and such(prenominal) of that could be combated with increased sales and better expense control.2.Working CapitalCurrently Competition Bike Inc. functional capital is positive. The company has more assets than they do liabilities. The company has seen a decrease in their assets in the last year but the companys liabilities have also decreased. The companys working capital ratio has remained around 2.1 for the last three years. This is very positive for the company, a ratio between 1.2 to 2.0 is recommended.

The Individual vs. Society in Mrs. Warrens Profession Essay -- Mrs. W

Often in life there is a conflict between what is best for the individual and the moral values determined upon the individual by companionship. This is true of the characters in George Bernard Shaws play Mrs. Warrens Profession. Shaw clearly demonstrates that actions frowned upon by society are not necessarily evil so long as they benefit the individual. Perhaps the most obvious example of societal morals conflicting with individual need is the case of Mrs. Kitty Warren. Mrs. Warren is a fair sex whose economic standing and lack of both professional skills forced her into becoming a prostitute. Obviously such a profession is against the beliefs of the society that she lives in. Not and is she not ashamed of her occupation, she is proud of the amount of money that it, as well as managing several houses of prostitution, has made for her. When asked of any shame about her job by her daughter she states, Well of course dearie, its just good manners to be ashamed of it its expecte d of a woman. This statement shows that the only reason that one would be ashamed of it is because of society says that one should be. She feels that the restrictions that society has placed on women has made it impossible for her to pursue any other lifestyle. She demonstrates this by saying, Its far better than any other employment open to women... It cant be right, Vivie, that there shouldnt be better opportunities for women. Shaw is attempting to evoke sympathy for the character of Mrs. Warren by pitting her against a society that is against her. He is quite obviously in favor of the actions that Mrs. Warren has taken, as demonstrated by the very reasonable rationalization for what she has done and the approving response of her daughte... acting as the representative of Shaws views, is constantly blowing off his attempts at winning her affection. Finally gives up his attempts when he realizes how her mother earns the money. He states , I really can pack myself to touch the old womans money now. Vivie is quite glad to be rid of him. Shaws opinions on society against the individual are clearly outlined in this play. by the actions and words of the character Vivie it can be clearly seen that he finds nothing wrong with breaking the rules placed on people by society, providing that it is for a good reason and not simply for self indulgence. The conclusion could be drawn that Shaw feels that these morals are fine in a perfect society, but since we do not live in one they must be broken occasionally in order to attain a better life, providing that it is done only in moderation.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Essay --

In the field of medicine, diagnosis and management are initiated by the presence of symptoms. Nevertheless, a number of technological advancements allow for an individuals disorder susceptibility to be identified, through DNA-based diagnostic testing. Although seen as the holy grail in disease prevention and management, DNA testing raises issues that can lead to widespread disapproval amongst the public. Hereditary Haemochromatosis (HH), an autosomal recessive disorder, is a disease that can not moreover be treated effectively, but if identified early it can also be prevented. HH is a metabolic disorder caused by a mutation in the hemochromatosis (HFE) protein, leading to an increase in intestinal iron absorption despite adequate or even spendthrift iron stores that lead to liberalist iron accumulation in the body, thus causing irreversible organ damage. (Fowler, 2008) HH is commonly known as adult onset-HH, as the disorder is often asymptomatic, with excessive iron accumulation observed after the age of 40 predominantly in the liver, but also in the pancreas, pituitary, heart, joints, and skin. This can lead to clinical complications much(prenominal) as cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, arthritis and liver fibrosis, in addition to skin hyperpigmentation. (Papanikolaou and Pantopoulos, 2004)In the bloodstream, iron binds to transferrin, establishing an iron-transferrin complex (diferric transferrin). Iron is released from transferrin when the compound binds with the transferrin receptor at the hepatocyte surface. rachis of the HFE protein to the transferrin receptor reduces the affinity of the transferrin receptor for the iron-transferrin complex which in turn reduces the amount of iron being released by the complex. (Vora, 2012) The HFE protein is ... ...d be tested for, in order to minimise the adverse effects it may have on any one individual or family. These individuals adopted a deontological approach, where they believe the eudaemonia of each(prenomin al) individual in a population should be accounted for by the health sector. Conclusively, genetic screening for HH can be approached from many interest groups, each with their own contrasting view, based on their rational. As a young scientist, I believe that the well-being of each individual in the population should be cared for when implementing any genetic screening. Even though haemochromatosis has a low penetrance rate, and is rarely seen in non Caucasian ethnicities, the continuous admixture of ethnicities, its 1 in 300 preponderance rate and its preventability, indicates that any test for it cannot be dismissed, regardless of its ethnic discrimination or other issues.

Essay --

In the field of medicine, diagnosis and management are initiated by the presence of symptoms. Nevertheless, a number of scientific advancements allow for an individuals disease susceptibility to be place, through DNA-based diagnostic testing. Although seen as the holy grail in disease prevention and management, DNA testing raises issues that end lead to widespread disapproval amongst the public. Hereditary Haemochromatosis (HH), an autosomal recessive disorder, is a disease that can not only be treated effectively, but if identified early it can also be prevented. HH is a metabolic disorder caused by a mutation in the hemochromatosis (HFE) protein, leading to an increase in intestinal iron absorption despite adequate or even excessive iron stores that lead to liberal iron accumulation in the body, so causing irreversible organ damage. (Fowler, 2008) HH is commonly known as adult onset-HH, as the disorder is often asymptomatic, with excessive iron accumulation observed afterwards the age of 40 predominantly in the liver, but also in the pancreas, pituitary, heart, joints, and skin. This can lead to clinical complications such as cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, arthritis and liver fibrosis, in gain to skin hyperpigmentation. (Papanikolaou and Pantopoulos, 2004)In the bloodstream, iron binds to beta globulin, establishing an iron-transferrin complex (diferric transferrin). Iron is released from transferrin when the compound binds with the transferrin receptor at the hepatocyte surface. Binding of the HFE protein to the transferrin receptor reduces the affinity of the transferrin receptor for the iron-transferrin complex which in turn reduces the amount of iron being released by the complex. (Vora, 2012) The HFE protein is ... ...d be tested for, in order to minimise the adverse effects it may have on any one individual or family. These individuals adopted a deontological approach, where they believe the well-being of each individual in a population should b e accounted for by the health sector. Conclusively, genetic screening for HH can be approached from many interest groups, each with their own contrasting view, based on their rational. As a young scientist, I believe that the well-being of each individual in the population should be cared for when implementing any genetic screening. Even though haemochromatosis has a low penetrance rate, and is rarely seen in non Caucasian ethnicities, the continuous admixture of ethnicities, its 1 in 300 prevalence rate and its preventability, indicates that any test for it cannot be dismissed, regardless of its ethnic discrimination or other issues.

Monday, May 27, 2019

Characteristics of Modern Drama

The essence of this paper is to list and discuss characteristics of modernistic period drama. These characteristics argon realism, naive realism and interaction between characters and the readers. They will be discussed along with Henrik Ibsens Ghosts and Arthur Millers Death of a gross sales art object. Realism and naturalism ar considered to be the cornerstones of modern drama as we know it today. They atomic number 18 the major influencers of the modern drama. Henrik Ibsen is considered to be the founding father of these 2 movements.It is crucial to shade that characters in these two movements represent themselves as normal hu world beings and this aid to the readers to interact and analyse the play to make their own judgements which is a feature of modern drama. Realism in literature was first developed in France in the mid-nineteenth century. Realist writers sought to narrate their plays from an objective, unbiased perspective that simply and clearly represented the rea l elements of the play.They became masters at psychological characterization, detailed descriptions of everyday vivification in realistic settings, and dialogue that captures the idioms of natural human speech. The realists endeavoured to accurately represent contemporary acculturation and people from all walks of life. Ghosts capture the issues that concern us in everyday life. They argon real issues that concern us in the contemporary world. The fact that they are real and not shielded they led to the play being rejected when it was first produced in1891.What Ibsen was saying was the truth which was took place in the society before nineteenth Century and was concealed. By revealing issues such as sex, sexual inherited infections, incest, and infidelity he hurt the society since such issues were not openly discussed anterior the 19th Century.The reason why Ghosts was rejected is that it dramatise those secret issues. Daily Telegraph leader is perhaps the most damning, describin g the play as an open run down a loathsome sore unbandaged a dirt act done publicly a lazar house with all its doors and windows open. Ibsen, (2002 xxvi). In human beings matters such as promiscuity does happen.Captain Alving represents this issue and in turn it is concealed at first because the only time Mrs Alving mentions it is in Act 2 after Osvald made sexual advances to Regina at the end of Act 1. Pastor Manders not to believe it but she tells her that she confirmed it from Johanna, who is Reginas mother. And excessively sexual transmitted does affect children. So it was of no help to conceal reality because at the end of everything it will bounce back ith its consequences having to be addressed.At the end Mrs Alving had no choice but to tell the truth though it is late at Osvalds side because his syphilitic condition its already in the advanced power point for being cured. In Death of a Sales man we see Willy Loman concealing the reality that he is no longer doing hygien ic in travelling sales. He claims that he is doing exceptionally well though he is in the habit of borrowing money from Charlie pretending it to be his weekly wages. He also claims to be well liked yet he is fired shamelessly in his job.He taints Biff and Happy by saying that being well liked is the key to success yet he is not successful himself. Now we can see how realism present itself in these two plays. On the other hand naturalism is a movement in theatre, film, and literature that seeks to replicate a believable everyday reality, as opposed to such movements as Romanticism or Surrealism, in which subjects may receive highly symbolic, idealistic, or even supernatural treatment. Naturalistic writers were influenced by the evolution theory of Charles Darwin. They believed that ones heredity and complaisant environment decide ones character.Whereas realism seeks only to describe subjects as they really are, naturalism also attempts to determine scientifically the underlying for ces (i. e. the environment or heredity) influencing these subjects actions. They are both opposed to romanticism, in which subjects may receive highly symbolic, idealistic, or even supernatural treatment. Naturalistic works often include uncouth or sordid subject matter. For example, Emile Zolas works had frankness about sexuality along with a pervasive pessimism. Naturalistic works exposed the dark harshness of life, including p everywherety, racism, prejudice, disease, prostitution, filth, etc.They were often very pessimistic and frequently criticized for being too blunt. Naturalism applies to Ghosts and Death of a Salesman in the sense that it sees human fate as the get out of the environment they find themselves in. As Sigmund Freud said mans basic instincts are sexuality and extent that he was a highly promiscuous man who ended up impregnating her maid. Looking at Charles Darwin also we find that the environment is the primary cause of everything that man does on that pointf ore man has no control over his actions. This will backup Captain Alving for being promiscuous.By making sexual advances to Regina, Osvald is also the victim of the environment and heredity. Furthermore in Death of a Sales man the reason why Willy Loman find himself in the situation he is in it is because of the environment. He wants to conquer new territories thus he refers to himself a smart England man. He also says if one is well liked he will never want yet he is an unknown character. The fact that he commits felo-de-se at the end of the play is the causality of the environment. The environment he occupied could not let him to achieve the values by which lives.According to naturalists he has no control all over things that happen in his life. Moreover the interaction between the readers and the characters is a characteristic of modern period drama. It is captured by the fact that these two plays are realistic. The characters in Ghosts and Death of a Salesman represents themse lves as normal human beings. The issues that they capture are known and their consequences to the characters are mirroring what is happening in the society at large. The readers feel what the characters feel and also sympathize with them as in the real life.In Ghosts the readers feel pity for Osvald for having acquired syphilis from his father. This situation also reminds us of the babies who are born HIV positive today. It is indeed a sad situation for an individual to find themselves in. Also in Death of a Sales man as readers we wish Willy Loman could think otherwise in order for him to escape the fate he is in. We wish he could realise that the frontier was reached by those who arrived there first. And that he could teach his sons that being well liked and personally attractive has nothing to do with success at all.This is never achievable because the play was written to portray the reality of natural fate such as death. As human beings we do not have a control over these thing s. In conclusion realism and naturalism and the interaction between the readers an the characters are the characteristics in modern period drama. The plays portrays the real issues of life and also the natural part of life which human beings have no control over. Also we find that the readers are able to interact with the characters because what is going on in the play is the same as what is going on in life.REFERENCESIbsen. H, (2002), Ghosts, London, Nick Hern Books. Miller. A, (2000), Death of a Salesman, Great Britian, Penguin Group. e. Notes. com,Realism Introduction,(2010), http//www. enotes. com/realism/, retrieved 21-04-2010UNIVERSITY OF BOTSWANA FACULTY OF HUMANITIES DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH SHALANI GOBIFELWANG 200602865MR SEDA MODERN ENGLISH fun ENG 482 21-04-2010Using any two plays that you have studied in this course list and analyse any three characteristics, features or conventions of drama of the modern period.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Security and Privacy in Workplace

1. 0 Introduction Whalen and Gates (2010), define supervise variantly in their article. They define it as a method and procedure of examining the proletarians in an establishment and study their constant events intended to guarantee that together the aegis of employees and requirements of the employer ar met. roughly all companies nowadays pack videos of their employees, they read their emails and monitor their mesh surfing. This so-and-so be done surreptitiously and some organizations atomic number 18 honest well-nigh it Chan et al. (2005). secretiveness is one of the most important things that are immensely fitting to be something of the past.In general companies are permitted to observe employee activities by the courts. Private companies ca-ca been setting rules in situations when employees are nonplusn into service for instance contracts that affirm that they give be observe employees drug ab employ of the profits or any phoner tools (Chieh and Kleiner, 2003) . Efforts have been make in arrangement for laws that protect commercial enterprise and the employees, regrettably most current court cases have been deceiving inference in the eyes of the magistrates and so mysteriousity or secrecy laws have been unsuccessful for employees.It has been recommended that government, big firms and industries and health care systems should have the capability to tape and study doers activities as it is a benefit to research and development for several(prenominal) eld. some legislation is the same opinion that laws should be set in place even though the breach of human rights forbid them from approaching the skip to a law level (Welebir and Kleiner, 2005). Sadly, comprehensible defenses of secretiveness opposed to earnest whitethorn never be evident from the view point of the law.Employers main affright is the decrease in productivity, virus attacks/ damaged equipment (i. e. computers), legal charges and loss of classifies data. Employees m ajor worry is incursion of their privateness, mistreatment of control and precision in their oeuvre. A survey conducted in the year 2000, is that sixty ii per centum of the employees consumption meshing re root words once a day for their private reasons and twenty percent of them determination it for at to the lowest degree ten times.This is why employer is at unease because a mountainous number of workers are employ company property for their birth use and not for the business purposes. According to Watson (2002) sopports the idea that productivity is what most companies are concerned about such that if employees use them for their own private uses it allow for negatively affect productivity. It is dogmatic for them to put regulations and policies that will help them monitor employees and their activities during workings hours.Some of the main things that companies use are telephone monitor particularly when privateized calls are made, electronic surveillance, medi cine tryouting and verification of emails sent externally for private reasons. Reasons why companies make use of policies is for the reason of a decrease in productivity , sensitive secular which arise from unpleasant email usage, study accidents caused by prohibited drug use, employees bitterness over supervise of computers and sexual harassment complaints prompted by dating among workmates. 2. 0 Research Objectives R01.To identify if certificate and screen actions affect things like productivity in the piece of work/organization R02. To state some of the security and privacy actions that some companies are implementing in the workplace R03. To analyze whether organizations nowadays are focusing more(prenominal) on prioritizing their security initiatives thus undermining their employees and their personal lives R04. To evaluate if companies are using the right tools, technologies and methods to maintain good quality security and privacy within their organization 3. 0 Research QuestionsRQ1. What do organizations hope to win by implementing security in their companies? RQ2. What effect does security and privacy actions have on productivity in the organization? RQ3. Do organizations of nowadays focus more on prioritizing their security initiatives hence undermining their employees and their personal lives? RQ4. Do companies use the right methods, applied science and tools when they choose security and privacy as a priority? 4. 0 Hypothesis H1. mint protection and privacy actions increase things like productivity in the workplace. H2.Telephone and email monitoring, monitored computer web use and surveillance cameras are some of the security actions that some organizations are implementing to their workers. H3. Organizations nowadays are more focused on prioritizing their security initiatives thus undermining their employees personal lives. H4. For a company to maintain good quality security and privacy within their organization they have to own the righ t tools, technologies and methods. theory-based Framework Workplace doing Security and silence in the workplace Priorities of the company such as productivity and protectionThe independent variable is security and privacy implementation in companies and workplace performance is the dependent variable. Priorities of companies such as productivity and protection are the controlling variables to the results. 5. 0 Achievements gained From Implementing Security and covert in the Workplace Organizations hope to achieve a better performance from their employees when they implement security in the workplace. Most companies today in most parts of the world do observe their workers because they have reasonable reasons for doing so.Since employers are accountable for their employees they have to provide them with a safe and a secure workplace. By monitoring or surveilling employees, employers hope to achieve several things such as employee or customer satisfaction, protection of the compan ys orphic info and prevent mass secrets from leaking out, non-offensive material from emails and the internet, high performance from the network and the systems and to boost employee productivity (Vorvoreanu and Botan, 2001). 5. Non-offensive material from emails and the profit According to lee side and Kleiner (2003), employees are responsible for all their workers during employment hours such that even any of the workers happens to send offensive information/materials and they happen to offend the receiver, the employers are the ones who will be liable to this course of action. If the material that would have been sent is establish offensive for certain accordingly the company can be sued which can affect the companies constitution to a greater extent.To prevent such cases most companies have seen it fit to take the initiative of monitoring each and every email and web use by the employees. 5. 2 Prevention of trade secrets from leaking out According to Paciniet al. (2008), in that location are several physical actions that employees consider when doing an internal control to safeguard trade secrets of the company. Such actions include a restriction on accessing certain premises (use of key cards), locks for all file cabinets, surveillance equipment to see all movements and passwords for accessing computers.Monitoring employees especially when it comes to trade secrets boosts productivity because employees who have intentions to harm the organization are quickly detected and those who are loyal to the company will work to their maximum potential because they fare that they are safe. 5. 3 High Performance from Network and the systems of the Company Companies do not only monitor their employees just to check if they are doing work properly. They overly monitor them in order to know if the network and system performance is not being taken advantage of by being used for personal use hence a decrease in productivity.If a computer network is efficient it is of a great advantage because it increases productivity in the workplace. If a computer system is poor it can be a great loss to the firm because productivity can decrease which results in loss of customers and loot. Most employers really consider the network bandwidth traffic this is related to employees using the network for personal use . These activities include downloads which decreases network and systems performance, likewise sharing and use of large audio and video files, surfing the internet and personal emails which are of high volume.All these actions by employees can cause the network/system be attacked by viruses which may cause it to be disabled (Trim, 2005). Secondly, if the bandwidth is used for purposes that are not work-related in some manner it would be an expense that could have been avoided and to make matters worse the expenses that are incurred do not contribute to the wellness of the firm (Strategic Direction, 2009). For example nowadays most organizati ons are seeking to adopt the Web 2. 0 technologies for the sake of privacy and security of their companies.This lawsuit of technology according to Almeida (2012), it enables the employers to prevent data loss which would have been caused by inappropriate use of social media applications such as YouTube, Skype during working hours will unquestionably increase productivity in the workplace. According to Doshi (2009), employer does believe in monitoring their employees because it is a fast and easy method of getting the job done. Productivity and profit increase because the employees will work efficiently and at ease hence a hatful of work is done in a short purpose of time.When workers work efficiently the employees themselves is satisfied hence customers are satisfied as well (Chan et al. 2005). According to The Gazette (2008), Internet abuse is a rising business that is costing Canadian businesses beyond sixteen billion dollars yearly in lost productivity and the amount is pre dicted to be eighty billion dollars in the unify States. 6. 0 Security Actions That Most Organizations Are Implementing 6. 1 Drug Testing Most organizations do drug exam for security reasons.For companies that are doing drug test, they test mainly for alcohol and drugs separately and separates test for both. Employees who come to do their job under the influence of drugs/alcohol may be a threat to other work-mates. Secondly, drug testing has increased because of a rise in health cost and an increase in the danger imposed by lawsuits which come from worker disease. Many companies are involved with drug testing their employees because it is one of the best ways for solving medical and economic problems (Jardine-Tweedie and Wright, 1998) .According to Lu and Kleiner (2004), if the drug testing by the employer is legal and correctly does things according to the law of that particular state then the company will have to look forward to higher(prenominal) profits. High profits are obt ained because the employee will be more productive, higher level of morale, a low rate of absenteeism, low health care and fewer injuries are encountered during working periods. 6. 2 Electronic superintendence Computers are changing rapidly nowadays especially in the workplaces such that monitoring employees by electric equipment is more common. watchfulness cameras/ CCTV is another(prenominal) way used by employers to monitor their employees, they are always aware of all the activities that take place in the organization and surrounding areas. According to subgenus Chen and Park (2005), monitoring employees regularly would reduce cases of spies in the organization getting away with their actions. Such cases are few because these spies are aware that they are being watched thereby lose interest to do any illegal actions that will jeopardize their identity (Lu and Kleiner, 2004).Next, managements main objective is to increase productivity and gain more profit hence they believe mon itoring employees will improve their productivity levels for the better and an assurance of service of high quality. Chieh and Kleiner (2003) states that employers can use information they get from the cameras to find out things that are going wrong in the workplace or find out reasons why productivity is decreasing. For example, an employer can discipline workers who may have been wasting their working hours on their own interest based from the information obtained from monitoring.From this employees are bound to focus more on their assigned duties rather than waste time during working hours. Surveilling employees also motivates them to work even harder than they have been doing (Lee and Kleiner, 2003). Managers can somehow conduct a performance military rank of their employees whereby they will be able to give a feedback to the employees and explain which parts accepts correction. From monitoring they are able to dictate the type of employees who are hard-working and those who n eed help.Employers are also able to detect mistakes the employees are make and from this it will be easy to assist them and correct them. 6. 3 Emails, Voicemails/Telephone calls, Files and Web/Internet use monitoring Many companies monitor employees emails, files, voicemails and internet use for various reasons. The number of companies who practice this type of monitoring has increased over the past years (Cox et al, 2005). Employers proclaim that by monitoring employees email, voicemails/telephone calls that way they can be certain that they do not contain any materials that can offend the receiver.Email monitoring is when employers monitor all emails that are going in and out for security purposes to make sure that employees are not disclosing employment or business confidential information. They may monitor as well to check if employees are not harassing other coworkers. Telephone monitoring is a system of managing calls and observing service by the employees. This type of surve illance is used to monitor employees when they make or receive calls and they can gather information on how the employees are performing.Internet use monitoring is when managers take the initiative to observe all the steps of their employees online tracks. Sixty percent of the firms in the United States of America gain from the complex technology and they opt to monitor the workers activities on the Internet (Ciocchetti, 2010). In cases that they are in such situations whereby a worker sends offensive material employees are able to deal with the accused consequently based on the proof of recorded conversations/videos.For example, Xerox Company fired forty employees who were caught viewing Pornography positions on the internet during working hours (The Register, 2000). Employers have been monitoring all its employees all over the world (ninety-two thousand in total) by taking records of every web site opened. The main reasons why they were fired is because they dog-tired most of t heir working hours on issues that were not related to their company and also viewing pornographic sites may have been offending material to coworkers.Companies have installed different types of technologies just to monitor their employees activities. Examples include software that filters specific content of information to prevent it from leaving the firm which may lead to the disposal of company secrets. opposite types of software used by companies are those that can monitor log-on and off times so that employers can see if workers are wasting time on issues that are not company related.Monitoring of emails, voicemails, files and Web use is believed to be another way that makes it certain that employees will work efficiently and possess productive work habits. Productive work habits boosts efficiency which increases productivity thus perfecting customer service. According to Welebir and Kleiner (2005), the worry for organizations is to keep up with the aspect of having power over production and project utilization of the Internet as a priceless resource.A survey conducted by IntelliQuest Information group revealed that there was an increase in private use of the Internet at work. The results signified that the use of had grown from 6. 9 hours to 9. 8 hours for every week prior to the last year and about fifty seven one thousand thousand workers access Internet from their workplace for private use. Further information provided by the study was that the number of workers seemingly receiving classified information from competitors has increased from 9. 2 percent to 24. percent within a year. Moreover workers are getting emails with attachments, roughly one fifth of the workers have reported receiving insulting email from an inner source and only a third to confess spending more time on the Internet for personal use. States do not have the same policies for monitoring and governing websites viewed by the residents. States like China, Vietnam and Singapore does not only block sites for pornography they also ban access to linguistic and political issues (Hechanova and Alampay, 2010). 7. Prioritizing Security and Privacy Ignores Employees Personal Lives Opponents of implementing security and privacy in the organization state that organization nowadays are too concerned with their own company interests and its prosperity thus forgetting that their employees do have personal lives. Installing electronic cameras that will be watching their activities all day when they are at work, monitoring emails and phone calls is making companies seem as if they are forgetting that their employees have a life to live (Dubbeld, 2004).This side of the coin olfactory propertys that staff is at liberty to confidentiality when they are using the Internet. Employees make do that as they are allowed to breaks, lunch hours or other selectedperiods where they are not liable to any duties but still in the building they should have the independence to do things li ke checking their netmail, do their banking or shopping and maybe just browse the Internet on free time. Everyone is entitled to some privacy no matter where they are so they argue that they should be able to do this during their free time without anyone monitoring all their movements.Secondly, employees do not consider it as monitoring productivity when companies even observe staff in the toilet or relaxing areas of the office. Some employees consider it as an intrusion and they have legal hope that they can maintain their personal lives private. Undermining workers privileges to confidentiality by surveillance and monitoring is not the only problem that employees face. It also generates high levels of stress and nervousness which to higher chances may lead to poor health of workers and a reduction in performance.Examples of physical wellbeing problems which may be caused by monitoring are crying Strain Injury and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome from performance monitoring by the company for instance keyboard strikes. To add on, employees believe thatthey are mortals who can make their own decisions hence it is their right to be treated as proficient andindependentpeople. Guaranteeing their individual development and performance that can be valued is what they believe they can achieve if they are treated as independent people thus they consider surveillance as violating their privacy (Ahmed, 2007).Workers argue that as long as individual e-mail does not hinder or conflict with business life, it should be permitted. Employees also argue that phone calls take more time than writing an e-mail and also that they should be given time to do individual matters because it can reduce the rate of absenteeism. Most employees have suggested that as long as there is a realistic limit on this practice of monitoring emails, there is no reason for fear but in situations where someone does something unusual then they will have to be dealt with (Kierkegaard, 2005).Even if employees are communicate that they are being monitored and in agreement that they are using company property they still feel that their employers are not respecting the fact that besides working for tem they also have personal lives which still go on whether they are working or not. 8. 0 Better results can be achieved by using the right tools, technologies and methods For a company to maintain good quality security and privacy within their organization they have to own the right tools, technologies and methods.A company cannot just instill a rule/wake up one morning with intentions of monitoring all the activities of their employees and dwell high productivity. Companies have to follows certain regulations to install such things as software that monitors an employees Internet use and all phone calls, drug testing and electronic surveillance. A cautiously worded policy that informs employees concerning the necessity of surveillance in the company will be the most probable way that it can ga in acceptance or support for workplace monitoring from them (Watson, 2002).According to Mei-ShaChieh and Kleiner (2003), as regards to other forms of monitoring, it is vital that all forms of surveillance should not be unreasonably intrusive. The methods that employers use when they consider monitoring employees should be practical because if they are not deemed like that then the company can encounter problems such as rebellious employees which may cause a decrease in performance. Arnesen and Weis (2007) critically supports the idea that Employers must know that it would not be irrationally intrusive to observe what an employee does in public however it efficacy be intrusive to observe the employees behavior hen they are in private places such as the toilet. For example, it may be practical to take pictures of employees when they are at work to observe productivity. However, it may unreasonable to put transparent panels in the ceiling of an employee lavatory. Moreover, if convinci ng conditions state the use of cameras in console rooms or other private areas, they are supposed to have signs warning employees they are there. Next, Kierkegaard (2005) states the some of the international regulations and codes that organizations should take note of when they decide to place security and some form of privacy in their workplace.The International Labor Office (ILO) has issued a Code of Practice on the Protection of workers personal data and it is anticipated to give assistance on the safeguard of workers private data. The most important requirements of the Code include issues like using individual data legally and justly only for reasons that are directly applicable to the employment of the staff and for the reasons which they were gathered for in the first place. Employers should by all means necessary not keep insightful private information of employees and all employees should be well-informed before such events take place in the organization.They should be inf ormed of any kind of monitoring that especially the ones that involve personal data collection. However, the information obtained from monitoring them should not be the only issues when doing a performance appraisal. Companies have a duty to safeguard private documents against any kind of a loss, unapproved access, usage, changes or exposure. Employees must have admission to their entire personal information and all rights to scrutinize and get a copy of all the archives.Revealing an Internet supervising policy is an essential element in an organization. Workers ought to be up to accompaniment with the type of activities that would be supervised, the regularity monitoring and how the management will be informed of the activity. If the organization verifies how the employees use their Internet then they must be informed and if the company retains deleted information for reasons like security when they should be informed about it (Welebir and Kleiner, 2005). The staff should not have beliefs that their actions on the Internet are confidential.Even though companies do not want to present the idea that they are monitoring each word they key in and mouse clicks on the Internet, it is compulsory to tell employees that they do not own any personal confidential rights when they are using the company Internet. 9. 0 Research Design and Methodology The impact of implementing security and privacy in the workplace and the effect it has on performance in the firm is an ontological study which takes a subjectivism view because security and privacy is created from the perception that workplace performance might be positively or negatively affected.The research is more of an explanatory studywhich is a deductive approach where Saunders et al. (2006), defines deductive astestinga concept in which the researcher cultivates the concept and assumption and design a research plan to test the assumption. The research strategy that is desirable for this study is survey because accor ding to Saunders et al. (2006), it is unremarkably related to a deductive approach and since we are using companies it is a tactic commonly used in businesses.I believe the research choice suitable for the study is a multi-method qualitative study whereby semi-structured interviews and questionnaires can be used for data collecting. Time horizon that can be used is a longitudinal study where according to Saunders (2006), the researcher embarks on a study at numerous facts in time in order to answer a research question. For reliability and validity sake to how security and privacy affect workplace performance several times of embarking on such a question will provide accurate results. Physical access is the one suitable for my study since I am an external researcher.Access would be granted from the management of all the companies that are to be used for the study and gaining an informal access from all the employees for accurate results. One of strategies that can be used to gain th is access is that the project will benefit the company in one way or the other. Research ethics that should be maintained during data collection stage are confidentiality and anonymity. Furthermore, the sample distribution method technique I used is probability specifically cluster sampling is what I would consider because there are specific types of jobs that make use of surveillance cameras, computers (with internet) and telephones. . 1 Possible Results Based on the literature analysis, H1 can be accepted because by implementing security in the workplace it can work in two ways. Firstly, protects the business from competitors and can be used when evaluating employees. H2 can also be accepted because not only American companies use oversight cameras, do telephone and Internet monitoring, companies in Europe and in countries like China, Vietnam, Philippine, Australia also do the same. H4 is acceptable because for the policy of applying security and privacy to work companies have to follow proper procedures.However H3 will remain debatable in the sense that in every topic that arises there is always going to be a group of people who will rebut the idea. It is acceptable only when the company does not communicate the use and the reasons behind the monitoring. 10. Conclusion Based on the evidence and facts from the literature review which provided various perspectives about security and privacy it can be concluded that monitoring employees can result in something noble or something unscrupulous.For example, emails and surfing the Internet can be a disruption but at the same time the feeling of being watched regularly can also be a disruption. Law of privacy has to balance employee interest against those of the employers and more prominently it must center on the important concepts of human self-esteem. Information technology has assisted firms to enlarge their productivity and efficiency but the misuse of the Internet has steered firms to monitor all communicatio ns operated electronically to guard their companies and limit legal responsibilities.Nowadays two major developments to be concerned about in regards to electronic surveillance is the great concern for employee privacy and the increased cases of employers being caught accountable for workers misbehaviors of electronic communication. Although the courts are in support of employers they must be alert about the workers rights though shielding the firms interests. Words 4 282 References Ahmed, S. ( 2007). Analysis of Workplace Surveillance In a Quest for an Ethical Stance. diary of Business Systems, Governance and Ethics, Vol 2,No. 4. Almeida, F. 2012). Web 2. 0 Technologies and Social Networking Security Fears in Enterprises, International diary of Advanced Computer learning and Applications,Vol. 3, No. 2, Amicus Guide. (2005). Amicus Guide to Privacy at Work. Privacy at Work. Online. Retrieved on 19 March 2012 from http//www. amicustheunion. org/pdf/PrivacyatWork. pdf Arnesen, D. W and Weis, W. L. (2007). Developing an Effective Company Policy For Employee Internet And E-Mail Use. Journal of Organizational Culture, conversations and Conflict, Volume 11, No. 2,pp. 53-65. Chen, J. V and Park, Y. 2005) The role of control and other factors in the electronic surveillance workplace, Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, Vol. 3 Iss 2, pp. 79 90. Ciocchetti, C. A. (2010). The Eavesdropping Employer A Twenty-First Century Framework for Employee Monitoring. Online. Retrieved on 19 March 2012 from http//www. futureofprivacy. org/wpcontent/uploads/2010/07/The_Eavesdropping_Employer_%20A_Twenty-First_Century_Framework. pdf Cox, S Goette, T. and Young, D. (2005). Workplace Surveillance and Employee Privacy Implementing an Effective Computer Use Policy, Volume 5 Issue 2. Dubbeld, L. 2004) Limits on surveillance Frictions, fragilities and failures in the operation of camera surveillance, Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, V ol. 2 Iss 1, pp. 9 19. Guha, M. (2008). The Visible Employee Using Workplace Monitoring and Surveillance to Protect Information Assets without Compromising Employee Privacy or entrust, Library Review, Vol. 57 Iss 9, pp. 746 747 Hechanova, R. M. and Alampay, E. A. (2010). Monitoring Employee Use of the Internet in Philippine Organizations, The Electronic Journal on Information Systems in Developing Countries, Volume 40 Issue 5, pp. -20. Kierkegaard, S. (2005). Privacy in Electronic Communication. Watch your e-mail your boss is snooping. Computer Law & Security Report,Vol. 21 Iss 3, pp. 226-236. Lee, S. and Kleiner, B. H. (2003). Electronic surveillance in the workplace, Management Research News, Vol. 26 Iss 2/3/4, pp. 72 81. Mei-ShaChieh, C. and Kleiner, B. H. (2003),How organisations manage the issue of employee privacytoday, Management Research News, Vol. 26 Iss 2 pp. 82 88. Petrovic-Lazarevic, S. and Sohal, A. S. (2004). Nature of e-business honest dilemmas, Information Mana gement & Computer Security, Vol. 2 Iss 2, pp. 167 177. Rustad, M. L. and Paulsson, S. R. (2005). Monitoring Employee e-mail and Internet Usage Avoiding the Omniscient. Electronic Sweatshop Insights from Europe. U. Pa. Journal of LaborAnd Employment Law, Vol. 74. Saunders, M. , Lewis, P, and Thornhill A. (2006) Research Methods for Business students. quaternate edition . UK Prentice Hall. Strategic Direction. (2009) Social networking and the workplace Making the most of web 2. 0 technologies,Vol. 25 Iss 8, pp. 20 23. The Gazette (2008). Stealing time at work on Net.One of the new trends to watch in labor law is how companies and labor tribunals handle cyberslacking- a term coined to describe people who spend an profusion of time on the Internet at work. Online. Retrieved on 31 March 2012 from http//www. canada. com/montrealgazette/news/business/story. html? id=32125d78-a479-497a-ae19-4f461ea18060 The Register. (2000). Xerox fires 40 in porn site clampdown. Document Company staffs get caught shuffling more than just paper. Trim, P. R. J. (2005). Managing computer security issues preventing and limiting future threats and disasters, Disaster Prevention and Management, Vol. 4 Iss 4, pp. 493 505 Vorvoreanu,M. and Botan, C. H. (2001). Examining Electronic Surveillance In the Workplace A Review of Theoretical Perspectives and Research Findings. Online. Retrieved on 16 March 2012 from http//www. cerias. purdue. edu/assets/pdf/bibtex_archive/2001-32. pdf Warren, A. (2002) Right to privacy? The protection of personal data in UK public organisations, New Library World, Vol. 103 Iss 11/12, pp. 446 456. Warren, M. J. (2002). Security practice survey evidence from three countries, Logistics Information Management, Vol. 15 Iss 5/6, pp. 347 35. Watson, G. (2002). E-mail surveillance in the UK workplace-a management consulting case study, Aslib Proceedings, Vol. 54 Iss 1 pp. 23 40. Welebir, B. and Kleiner,B. H. (2005),How to write a proper Internet usage policy, Journa l of Management ResearchNews, Vol. 28 Iss 2 pp. 80 87. Whalen, T. and Gates, C. (2010),Watching the watchers voluntary monitoring of infosec employees, Journal of Information Management & Computer Security, Vol. 18 Iss 1 pp. 14 25. Moghe, V. (2003) Privacy management a new era in the Australian business environment, Journal of Information Management & Computer Security, Vol. 1 Iss 2, pp. 60 66 Ying-Tzu Lu, Brian H. Kleiner, (2004),Drug testing in the workplace, Journal of Management Research News, Vol. 27 Iss 4 pp. 46 53 Jardine-Tweedie, L. and Phillip C. Wright, (1998) Workplace drug testing avoiding the testing addiction, Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 13 Iss 8, pp. 534 543 Chan, M Woon, I. and Kanakanhalli, A. (2005). Perceptions of Information Security in the workplace Linking Information Security climate to Compliant Behavior, Journal of Information Privacy and Security, Volume 1 Issue 3, pp. 8-41 Chieh, C. M. and Kleiner, B. H. (2003), How organisations manage t he issue of employee privacy today, Journal of Management Research News, Vol. 26 Iss 2 pp. 82 88 Bibliography Gritzalis, S. (2004). Enhancing Web privacy and anonymity in the digital era, Journal of Information Management & Computer Security, Vol. 12 Iss 3, pp. 255 287. Griffiths, M. (2010),Internet abuse and internet addiction in the workplace, Journal of Workplace Learning, Vol. 22 Iss 7 pp. 463 472 Morgan, C. (1999).Employer Monitoring Of the Employee Electronic Mail And Internet Use. McGill Law Journal, Vol. 44 pp. 850-902. Jardine-Tweedie, L. and Phillip C. Wright, (1998) Workplace drug testing avoiding the testing addiction, Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 13 Iss 8, pp. 534 543 Appendices Appendix 1 Evaluation of Sources In order to do my literature review I made use of secondary data which consisted of journals, books and web publications (which included newspapers). From these sources I could get dependable information because they are reliable sources.I did not m anage to get a lot of recent journals for the current year and for the previous year but I did manage to get publications which were within the ten years. These sources really helped me understand more facts about my research topic. Most of the journals that I found were useful to explain my topic and write more facts because they had information that I wanted to use. Most of the journals that I found discussed reasons why organizations were implementing security and privacy in their organizations and the proper procedures that were supposed to be taken for such policies.However it was not easy to get journals that rebuttal those ideas and supported that somehow it affected employees. Secondly, I was able to find journals that explained security and privacy from companies in different countries. The issue of security and privacy in the workplace was more critical beginning 1996 which shows that its an issue that that was brought about technology advancements. I found most of my jou rnals on emerald insight and to top it up I found more from scholar web publications. I took my time to paraphrase all the necessary information from the journals that I found to support all my assumptions.I used twenty- three journals to support my ideas, except for one journal all of them the author name was given, dates, journal article headings and all the information needed to do the referencing. The impact of implementing security and privacy and its effect on workplace performance Appendix 2 Mind Map workweek 1 Received topics to research on Week 2 Search for relevant journals mainly from Emerald Insight. com Week 2 Research Objectives Research Questions Hypothesis Week 2 Chose the research topic Week 3 Theoretical Framework Introduction & Search for more JournalsWeek 4 Non-offensive material from emails and the Internet High performance from company networks &systems Week 4 Protection of company confidential information Prevention of trade secrets from leaking out Week 4 Po sitive effects of security and privacy mainly on productivity, employee &customer satisfaction Week 5 Security & Privacy actions that companies are using Week 6 Facts raised by opponents of Security and privacy e. g. electronic surveillance Week 7 Owning the right tools, technologies and methods Week 9 Research Design and Methodology Possible Results

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Locus of Control vs Quality of life Essay

The locus of give measures the rational adept has on how they assess the disposition of ca use of goods and services and effect in their spirit. Studies award that the measure of moderate one interprets they have on the incidents in their life the better quality of life they lead. This is the m altogether concept of the relationship surrounded by locus of comptroller and quality of life, as well as the main topic of debate for many scholars. In his line of business Community Correlates of Outcomes in Subjects with Panic Attacks, David A. Katerndahl utilizes structured interviews of randomly selected adults from 18 diametric census tracts to measure the way they perceive their lives.All of those studied atomic number 18 college students, and overleap of control directly correlates with stress. Oddly enough, the stressors that apply to these students tend to be some of the same stressors that apply to the lives of everyday working people. For instance Katerndahl notes tha t one signifi senst stressor all of the students shared had to do with an inadequacy over their income to bout ratio. He ultimately concludes that there is a direct connection that can be made between quality of life and the control one feels they have over occurrences. He connects this finding with cases of panic overtures.The 97 subjects with panic attacks included 78% females, 56% Hispanics, and 30% non-hispanic whites (Katerndahl, 2001). More than anything Katerndahls work serves as an adamant argument for women being vulnerable to life stressors and anxiety being a detriment to their health. One major(ip) problem in society that is mentally affecting women is the culture of thinness. There is a constant pressure placed on women to be attractive, thin, and fit into the vale girl image established by films As a result, women are more likely to develop eating disorders.Anorexia, an eating disorder that involves drastic fasting, and Bulimia, which consists of pig out eating foll owed by any compensatory behavior, are virtually nonexistent in men (Katerndahl, 2001). Both of these disorders lead to serious health problems but anorexia ultimately leads to remainder by starvation. It is thought that these disorders are caused by a perceived wishing of control in their lives which is balanced by these women having complete control over their looks. secretion against unattractive or overweight women is an unspoken prejudice. This epidemic of attaining physical perfection is actually an unnecessary and harmful setback for women. present the locus of control, or lack of control, these women feel prevalent in their lives leads to cases of bulimia, anorexia, and even death. While Katerndahls study seems to imply that women are more prone to anxiety and and feeling a lack of control. Biologically, research shows that men and women are actually not all that different.Pertaining to cognition, men are more suited for mental rotation, navigation using geometry and reco gnizing objects within visual backgrounds. Women show better memory for locating objects and navigating through the use of landmarks (Allen, Goldscheider, & Ciambrone, 1999 Baider et al. , 1995 Ben-Tov, 1992 Ptacek et al. , 1994). As far-off as motor skills, from age 3-5 years old onward, men show an exceptional accuracy at aiming projectiles, while women show the ability for exceptional speech rate and small amplitude coordination.Pertaining to math skills, men are outflank suited for solving abstract reasoning problems, while women tend to be statistically best at computation and calculation problem solving. As far as verbal abilities go, women show earlier development of virtually every aspect of verbal ability, verbal memory, spelling grammar and fluency (Oren & Sherer, 2001). When emotions come into play, men and women use different areas of their brains to control sexuality, but most of the chemical systems overlap and most of the social bonding is somehow connected to the sexual process.Men and women have different forms of aggression. In most mammals, men tend to be the aggressor many forms of aggression are controlled through different neural pathways (Oren & Sherer, 2001). BNST manages affective attack this persona is sensitized by testosterone and desensitized by estrogen. AVP stimulation increases aggressive behavior and drives persistence circuits for this neuron are also more prevalent in males than in Females (Allen, Goldscheider, & Ciambrone, 1999 Baider et al. , 1995 Ben-Tov, 1992 Ptacek et al. , 1994).The low biological differences that exist between men and women can only be significantly contrast their methods of responding to stress when the stressor in some way capitalizes on every sexs chemical weakness. For example, men are psychologically more prone to substance abuse a man under the influence of a substance that inhibits or enhances the circulation of AVP would affect the testosterone levels in the males body, thus making him mor e or less aggressive. This shift in behavior would tout ensemble be dependent on whether the male abuses substances as a coping strategy for stress.This would have the same effect for a woman, but men are more prone to this dysfunctional behavior. Oddly enough, maternal stress can lead to a drop testosterone development desynchronizing or preventing masculinization. Stress can also effect the human bodys ability to heal itself when sick or influence the method of coping with disease. The biological assessment of both(prenominal) men and women show that at the core of the human mind everyone has a similar breaking point or defining line that depending on caboodle could drive any individual toward a panic attack.Katerndahls end finding sums it up best when he say, This study found that, with the exception of boilers suit quality of life, all of the assessed outcomes were associated with at least one community factor, accounting for up to 15% of outcome variance. Although previous work found that country-level variables (i. e. , unemployment, gross subject field product) were not related to morbidity or work satisfaction Benavides et al. , 2000, this does not imply a lack of impact by neighborhood level factors (Katerndahl, 2001). Here he is basically pointing out that in all of the events that occurred in the lives of each respective college individual, all of the students at least felt that 15% of the effects they endured were caused by community events out of their control. Which is understandable, but it also suggests there is a window for perceived helplessness in the psyche of all individuals, a panic attack is just dependant on the measure of ones locus of control. Everything has a cause and effect, and while an individual can dictate their course of actions, sometimes the effect can be unpredictable and completely controlled by community events.For example, Katerndahl mentions how a major source of anxiety for many people is maintaining an adequate r ent to income ratio. An individual who has a weak sense of control might fall into a morbid depression over their income which is ultimately designated by the government, so they unfeignedly feel as though they are catching a bad break but, they also have the option of working more hours, or bettering their fostering for higher pay. In this scenario the locus of control is decided by deeply one buys into the illusion of being without options.This is a characteristic that many of the scholars suggest is heedful by socioeconomic factors, such as upbringing, family education, and the environment of ones neighborhood. This is the core concept in Jerome J. Tobacyks work. In Tobacyks article Changes in Locus of guard Beliefs in Polish University Students Before and afterwards Democratization, he argues that sociocultural changes through changes that occurred through the democratization of Poland ultimately allowed for shifts in the locus of control perceived by Polish citizens.He dir ectly connects ones economic circumstance to the extent of which they can construct their life. He argues that the ability of one to reinvent themselves was seen as a luxury only accessible to the financial elite before Poland became a legitimate democracy. As he notes, The recent dramatic democratization drift in Poland allowed a study of the effects of the variation from an external control to an internal control sociocultural situation on individual locus of control beliefs.This study compares the locus of control beliefs of Polish university students before (in 1985) and just after (in 1991) the profound sociocultural change of democracy. Here it becomes clear that the imediet newfound belief that one can achieve entirely independent of heritage, race, religion, or sex has the ability to uplift the moral of an entire nation. The author further notes that, The most dramatic transformation was the change toward internal control (ie. Autonomy, independence, self-determination) in the sociopolitical effort (Tobacyk, 2001). In sum, with their studies, these scholars show that ones perceived happiness is just a measure of the control they insist they have over their respective circumstances. They can only insist they have this control, because even this control is just based on perception. As Katerndahls study shows only a fool would live as though outside forces have no effect on ones life just as a lunatic might believe their life is completely driven by predestined events.Work CitedAllen, S. M. , Goldscheider, F. , & Ciambrone, D. A. (1999). Gender roles, marital occasion and nomination of spouse as primary caregiver. Gerontologist,39, 150158. Almeida, D. M. , & Kessler, R. C. (1998) Everyday stressors and gender differences in daily. distress. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75,670680 Long J. D. , & Williams R. L. (1988) The relationship of Locus of Control to Life Style Habits. Journal of Clinical Psychology, vol. 44, no. 2 Katerndahl, M. D . , M. A. (2001) Community Correlates of Outcomes in Subjects with Panic Attacks.Depression and Anxiety 13194197 Oren, N. , & Sherer, M. (2001). Cancer Patients and their Spouses Gender and its termination on Psychological and Social Adjustment. Journal of Health Psychology, 6(3), 329-338. Retrieved Sep. 18, 2008, from file///C/Documents%20and%20Settings/Simon%20Breedon/My%20Documents/Gender%20Differences-Coping%20with%20Stress. pdf. Tobacyk, J. (2001). Changes in Locus of Control Beliefs in Polish University Students Before and After Democratization. The Journal of Social Psychology, 132(2), 217-222

Friday, May 24, 2019

Japanese Employment Practices

multinational EMPLOYMENT RELATIONS TO WHAT EXTENT THE Nipponese EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES HAS CHANGED AFTER THE ECONOMIC CRISIS? pic SINTHIA NOVA Student ID 2724881 14th may 2009 Table of Contents INTRODUCTION3 handed-down JAPANESE MODEL OF EMPLOYMENT SYSTEM4 THE CHANGING NATURE OF JAPANESE EMPLOYMENT SYSTEM5 1. Sources of change5 2. Life period physical exercise6 3. Seniority-based Pay and Promotion System7 4. Enterprise Unions9 CONCLUSION9 REFERENCES10 INTRODUCTION In the post-war period, Nipponese manufacturing companies significantly maturationd their share of the global market of automobiles (Automotive newlys-Market Data Book, quoted in Womack, Jones, and Roos 1991, 69) as well as achieving more than 50 percent of the world markets in cameras, idiot box recorders, watches, calculators, microwave ovens, motorcycles, and colour televisions (Oliver and Wilkinson 1992, 5). Much of this success was attributed to the forms of human-resource Man come onment found in Jap anese companies (Abegglen and Stalk 1987 Clark 1987 Dore 1990 Tachibanaki and Noda 2000).However, during the period of Asiatic Financial crisis and economic recession for just about of the 1990s, the true Japanese features that supported comparatively high cognitive operation until the late 1980s came in for severe criticism. Considering the high performance of the US economy in the 1990s, Neoliberals, based on the universal relevance of liberal markets, argue that the Japanese form is dead, and that Japan must (and will) adopt the US liberal market model (Lindsey and Lukas, 1998 Lin, 2001 Dornbusch, 1998 Krugman, 1996).By crease, m both theorists of institutionalism, based on contextualized efficiency and path-dependent national patterns, vociferation that Japan continues its path-dependent national model due to its unique culture taken for disposed(p) within the culture the interconnectedness of institutions and agents efforts to utilize the comparative advantages of thei r institutions (Dore, 2000 Green, 2001 Isogai et. al. , 2000 Chesbrough, 1998 DiMaggio and Powell, 1983 Hall and Soskice, 2001).However, neither the neoliberals argument for simple convergence towards a liberal market economy nor the institutionalists claim for the continuation of the original Japanese model can explain the dynamic changes happening within the Japanese model at the turn of the century. In this report, the fresh trends of Japanese employment relations will be examined. Two questions have been addressed here. First, why the tralatitious Japanese employment frame has been changed.Second, to what extent has ER system has been changed? To answer these questions we will first examine the traditional Japanese model and then after considering some issues relating to the reasons of this change, we will analysis the current trends to observe out the extent of modification in a effect of typical ER puts. A discussion of the implications of these changes is then be presen ted, followed by the conclusion. TRADITIONAL JAPANESE MODEL OF EMPLOYMENT SYSTEMJapan is a complex, dynamic society that has belowgone enormous change in the past 125 old age, converting itself from a feudal soil into a modern industrialized nation and an economic superpower. In doing so, the Japanese have been able to copy Western technology, science, education and politics, while still tutelage their unique cultural unmarriedity. One distinct feature of Japan that separated it from former(a) Asian countries was it collective culture which has been carried over to the companies (Kashima and Callan, 1994).As an employee, an individual identitys with a larger entity through which one gains pride and feeling of being part of something significant, tying an individuals prestige directly to the prestige of his or her employer. Typically, the high society is seen as a provider of security and welfare. To a large extent, loyalty to the union surpasses the family bond. The core pri nciples of Japanese employment model is the so-called THREE unnameable TREASURES (sanshu no jingi) of Japanese steering. 1)The lifetime/long term employment system (shushin koyo) The terms long-term or enduring employment are used synonymously to describe lifetime employment, which was established at many companies during the period of high economic growth during the 1960s. The concept of lifetime employment emerged as a exit of the peculiar aspects of Japanese employer-employees relations that were supported by narrow labour markets during the post-war period when Japan experienced a labour shortage for the first time in her industrial history.This system developed and was established at many large and mid-sized companies during this period of high economic growth. With rapid technology innovation and expansion of byplayes, large-sized companies hired inexperienced manpower directly from the labour market and through in-house training and development programs these proles de veloped various skills and techniques. (2)The system of seniority-based enlist and promotion (nenko joretsu) here(predicate) status and seniority are tied to length of service, rather than to job duties or deservingness.According to this system, the decisive factors determining pay are the length of service, age and educational background, not the work performed. The system goes hand-in-hand with the lifetime employment. Traditionally, the seniority-based reward system had two different aims. The first was to advance an employees career and provide financial compensation based on a gigantic social considerations and personal qualifications, such as the age and education level of employees. The second was to make gigantic use of non-cash boot benefits for employees and their families. 3)Enterprise marriage ceremonyism (kigyobetsu rodo kumiai) Another primary(prenominal) characteristic of Japanese employment relations are effort-based totalitys. In Japan, unions are organiz ed at the enterprise level, collectively bargain with a single employer, and conclude collective agreements on the enterprise level. According to Inohara Enterprise-wide unionism specifically expresses the workplace in terms of union membership. In principle, it organizes all regular employees of a company indiscriminately into one union, i. e. it is an employee agreement on the basis of where they work (company) and not what they do (occupation or skill). such(prenominal) a labor union is not dominated by the company it represents the workforce, and as such, enjoys appropriate prestige and benefits provided by the company. Relations between guidance and the union are between insiders, namely, all the members of the union are company employees. Intervention by outsiders such as industrial and national labor organizations, outside clientele agents, or attorneys is not tolerated. THE CHANGING NATURE OF JAPANESE EMPLOYMENT SYSTEMSources of change Prior to summer of 1997, the Japane se system guaranteed easy access to affordable capital and raw materials was supplied by a loyal and devoted labour force (at the time of labour shortage) which facilitated market expansion. However, the market became saturated and the economy slowed down, these hawkish advantages were turned into liabilities. Keiretsu banks found themselves saddled with bad debts from group companies, inter-group purchasing became barriers to cost reduction, and excess size of an albeit loyal labour force was viewed as a hitch to struggling companies.Japanese companies were also reacting to the data revolution and were left behind by their American counterparts. Although, most Japanese companies have found change at a quick pace too much to ask they had to adopt foreign practices and policies in order to survive. Deregulation is another force for change. It has made Japanese markets more accessible to competitors, foreign as well as domestic. In heretofore-protected industries like financial se rvices, distribution and agriculture few firms are prepared for the blast of competition and uncertainty (Lincoln and Nakata, 1997).The aging population also has clear implications for corporate employment relation practice. With an aging workforce, the permanent employment and seniority system burdens firms with wage hike numbers of higher-paid and less productive workers. Previously, these systems were more sui gameboard to employers, since the steep seniority escalator resulted in less payment for the relatively young workforce and the permanent employment norm reduced the uncertainties and costs of high staff turnover.Furthermore, the transition to a service economy combined with socio-cultural and socio-economic changes has had a profound effect on Japans employment institutions. Even though leading-edge manufacturers are still competitive, their contribution to Japanese domestic employment and income is shrinking, in favor of the emerging service sector as the next great eng ine of jobs and wealth. Employment practices of sales and service firms are different from those of manufacturing. Their younger workforce is more mobile, less committed to work and the firm.Furthermore, since the organization of work in service firms is less team based, individual performance is more easily evaluated. Also, occupational skills are valued over firm-specific skills, so that broad job experience give outs the main driver of wages and performance rather than loyalty to one employer (Debroux, 1997 Lincoln and Nakata, 1997 Ornatowski, 1998). Lifetime employment One of the distinct features of the Japanese employment relations system is lifetime employment. Japanese workers joins companies at a young age, and spend a larger portion of their life in the company compared to other countries.The figure below can show that Japanese workers in terms of length of service, average number of years and median years compared to workers in other countries was much higher . Table1 Co mparative Length of Service pic Source Adopted from Current Labour Economy in Japan. Notes 1, 2 and 3 number length of service based on OECD Report, 1995. Other figures from the respective country. From the middle of the economic crisis till 1990, there have been ongoing debates to reform the lifetime employment system.Company attitudes were gradually changing due to increasing labor costs, employees age, a growing rise in the number who unable to cope with the rapidly growing unused technology and changing globalized markets. Employers now need staff with readily usable skills and workers who have specialized abilities in order to respond to stiffer competition and cut across more complex specialized operations. The older workers employed with lifetime contacts are not able to adjust rapidly to new developing technologies typified by information technology. many another(prenominal) companies have begun to adopt more diverse hiring practices over past few years, victorious on e xperienced employees in mid-career in summation to new graduates. Employers prefer to hire mid-career and non-regular workers both in large, mid- and teensy-weensy-sized organizations. The rate of hiring of midcareer workers in non-clerical positions is higher in small businesses. Hiring mid-career workers, on the one hand, minimizes training costs and, on the other hand, companies get workers with ready-made skills who can work with developing technology.In fact, employers are now seeking staff with readily available skills and workers with specialized abilities who can portion out more complex and specialized operations so they can respond to stiffer competition. Many employers are arguing for some partial adjustment to the prevailing practice of lifetime employment. The table below shows how companies are changing their attitude toward lifetime employment practices Table 2 Companies changing their attitude toward lifetime employment practices posture Response Percentage Part ial adjustment is inevitable 40. 0 Will basically maintain the practice 36. 1 Fundamental review is necessary 15. 3 Do not have lifetime mployment practice 5. 2 No response 3. 3 Source Labour Situation in Japan and depth psychology 2004-2005, p. 26. According to the Ministry of Labour Special Survey, about 30 percent of all employees in Japan are non-regular as of 2000 (Japan Labor Bulletin, 2000 12). According to the table below, the recent trend Table 3 Changes in Regular and Non-Regular Employees during Recession (10,000) 19856 19914 19972001 Regular Non-Regular Regular Non-Regular Regular Non-Regular Female 24 15 47 64 -82 151 Male 16 2 119 10 -89 55 Total 40 17 166 74 -171 206 Source Wakisaka (2002). towards using non-regular workers is in contrast to the traditional pattern in which non-regular workers decreased during recession while regular workers maintained their jobs due to their skills accumulated through in-house training. In 19972001, the number of regular employees in Japan sharply declined by 1. 71 million, while the number of non-regular workers increased by 2. 06 million.The fact that non-regular workers are replacing regular workers indicates that Japanese companies have changed their traditional values of high skills based on in-house training and employees loyalty supported by lifetime employment, instead considering labour costs and the flexibility of the labour market. As a Joint Labour Management 1998 survey documents, workplace morale has declined as the number of non-regular workers has increased (Morishima, 2001). Seniority-based Pay and Promotion System Another important characteristic of Japanese employment relations system is the seniority-based pay and promotion system. To understand the main concept behind the seniority-based wage system it is important to make do the wage theory presented by Koike. year) where wage refer to a) salaries that increase in accordance with age and length of service b) the rewards that are not paid on the basis of the job performed and c) that are unique to Japan. The main recompense determination factors are seniority and the number of years the employee has been working at the company. stipend increase based on seniority is a general labour practice, and not a system. Japanese companies rarely evaluate academic degrees such as doctorate. Yamanouchi and Okazaki-ward had tried to explain the history and practices of the evaluation system in Japan. They argue that Japanese companies had gone through different turning points in the evaluation system for the saki of pay and promotion.The American system of job analysis and job classification was introduced as a modern, rational management system to rebuild Japanese management in the 1950s which marked the first turning point in the Japanese system. The second turning point came between the 1960s and 1970s when companies introduced a competency-ranking system which almost 64 percent of the organizations followed until 1974. The third restructuring occurred in the 1980s when the competency-ranking system did not work effectively due to the effect of an increase in the value of yen globalize business activities, deregulation, the maturation of the economy, and an aging workforce.Keeping senior employees became more costly than employing younger employees, particularly those over 40 years old in 1990 due to the recession. This was driven by the need to cut cost. In recent years, growing numbers of companies are clearly evaluating ability and performance over tenure and age in salary decision. Since the early 1990s, some companies have introduced a system of job ability-based wages focusing individual worker performance over one year compared with goals set at the beginning. This new system is quite close to a true performance-based pay system. It has been termed Annual Salary System and has been introduced by about 10 percent of large companies.This system is primarily used for managers and g eneral managers, not for lower level employees. The monetary benefits to employees, if any at all, are typically small (Debroux,1997 Lincoln and Nakata, 1997 Ornatowski, 1998). The attempt to shift to performance pay shows the dilemma between companies who worry that the resulting inequities will destroy morale and unity. Besides, most companies may be do not like to see younger people supervise older ones. Also, there are fears that individual merit pay will ruin the Japanese system of team-based production, where stronger team members assist weaker ones for the good of the performance of the team as a whole (Lincoln and Nakata, 1997).The continuities in the Japanese employment systems are as striking as the changes, especially when one looks at the depth and length of the economic recession. Based on data from 1,618 firms, Morishima (1995) highlights tercet different types of attitudes and actions of firms toward employment system reform. One group of companies tries to change th eir wage system from seniority based to performance based and these firms try at the analogous time to use the external labor market to recruit workers. Although they represent the highly publicized trend away from traditional Japanese employment practices, these companies all make up 10. 8% of the sample. Most firms (56. %) have retained the traditional employment system representing the majority force of continuity. A third group (32. 4 %) shows a mixed picture consisting of firms that are reforming the wage system, while maintaining long-term employment practices. These findings highlight the striking resilience of traditional practices as well as some important changes. Enterprise Unions Japanese unions are organized on an enterprise basis, with only permanent, fulltime employees of the company eligible to join the union. This structure has led Japanese unions to defend job security and the working conditions of their members through company-based mechanisms.The unions chances of success through such mechanisms is, at this time, somewhat diminished. This has led unions to focus on job security rather than pay increases, which has lessened their appeal to young people, and has alienated unorganized nonregular workers in large companies and the vast majority of employees in small companies (Debroux 2003a). With the decline of lifetime employment and the increase in the number of non-regular workers, not only enterprise unions but the entire union movements are now declining. For example, the unionization rate (union members divided by number of employees) declined from 34. 7 percent in 1975, to 28. 9 percent in 1985, 23. 8 percent in 1995 and 22. percent in 1998 (Shirai, 2000 20). In addition, the role of conflict resolution traditionally played by Japanese enterprise unions, also declined despite the formal existence of enterprise unions. Recently, individual labourmanagement conflicts have increased. For example, the number of cases concerning workplace disputes over daily employment and working conditions, dealt with by the Labour Standards Inspection Offices, increased to 20,000 in 1994. Similarly, the number of cases of consultation that the Labour Administration Offices and the Womens and Young Workers Offices deal with have also exceeded 75,000 and 10,000, respectively (Shirai, 2000 119).It is important to note that since the economic contribution of temporary workers is increasing, its necessary to recognize their representation in the labor market by protecting their rights. With increased cost-cut measures adopted by employers due to rising competition, there has been a substantial increase in the employment of non-regular workers in the last few years. The unionization rate of these workers is only three percent. At the same time, employers have become increasingly interested in performance-based systems on the enterprise level. These developments should influence the future role of unions in the regular wage negotiation process. CONCLUSION This report has explored the changes taking place in ER in Japanese firms.A period of sustained economic decline, increased global competition, a rigid employment and business system, a banking system on the verge of collapse, and the occurrence of the Asian financial crisis meant that the 1990s was a catalyst for change and regeneration. While these factors were influential in providing the nervous impulse for change, other factors, such as the aging population, declining birth rates, and the short-term horizons of younger workers, were also important. Overall I have found evidence of the flexibility in distinctive features of Japanese employment relations system, which are lifetime employment, seniority based system and enterprise-based unions.The number of employees under lifetime contract is now in decline as Japanese companies have started to adopt more diverse hiring practices, such as taking on experienced employees in mid-career in addition to new gradua tes, recruiting contingent workers e. g. part-time and other types of non-regular employees has overtaken employment of lifetime employees in recent years. In 1982, 84% of full-time workers were regular workers with long-term careers and good fringe benefits at one company. But 20 years later, the regular workers share had shrunk to 68%. Companies attitudes towards seniority based system have been changing as well. Many companies have changed their wage systems to reflect individual performance.They are now adopting PAY SYSTEM BASED ON PERFORMANCE, which represented by the annual salary system and JOB-BASED SALARY, which mainly focusing on people occupying managerial positions or higher. An increasing number of companies are putting a stop to their practice of periodic salary raises based on seniority and introducing systems in which bonuses are influenced by evaluations. Another important characteristic of Japanese employment relations are enterprise-based unions, which is now unde r threat because of the decline of lifetime employment and the increase in the number of non-regular workers. Moreover, given todays strict economic climate in which wage increases are difficult, the SHUNTO is shifting from its former policy of seeking wage increases as the highest priority to job security and maintenance. No matter whether it regards performance pay, the elimination of management titles, or reductions of the workforce, the change of employment practices in Japanese companies seems to be slow and incremental, carefully avoiding unexpected or shocking breaks with the past. Furthermore, they are not changing the typical Japanese model completely, trying to make it more effective by modifying them according to the new trend of highly competitive globalized market. REFERENCES Bamber. G. J, Lansbury R D, & Walies. N . (2006) International and Comparative Employment Relations Globalization and the developed market economies. 4th ed. SAGE Publications Ltd, London. BENSON, J and DEBROUX , P (2004) The Changing Nature of Japanese Human imagery Management The Impact of the Recession and the Asian Financial Crisis. vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 3251. Int. Studies of Mgt. & Org. online usable from Xpert HR. http//xperthr. co. uk Accessed 28 April 2009 Benson, J. and Debroux, P. The Changing Nature of Japanese HRM The Impact of the Recession and the Asian Financial Crisis. International Studies of Management and Organization, 34 (1) 2004 pp. 32-51 Selmer, J. (2001) Human resource management in Japan Adjustment or transformation? Volume 22 reappearance 3 Page 235 243, MCB UP Ltd online Available from Emerald. http//www. emerald-library. com/ft Accessed 10 May 2009 Hattori, R and Maeda, E. (2000) The Japanese Employment System (Summary). Issue-January 2000, Bank of Japan Monthly Bulletin, online Available from www. boj. or. p/en/type/ronbun/ron/research/data/ron0001a. pdf Accessed 10 May 2009 Hyeong-ki Kwon (2004) Japanese Employment Relations in Transitio,. Econ omic and Industrial Democracy 2004 25 325, online Available from SAGE . http//eid. sagepub. com/cgi/content/abstract/25/3/325 Accessed 10 May 2009 Adhikari, R (2005) National Factors and Employment Relations in Japan. Japan land of Labour Policy and Training, Tokyo, online Available from http//www. jil. go. jp/profile/documents/Adhikari. pdf Accessed 10 May 2009 Kambayashi, R & Kato, T (2008) The Japanese Employment System after the Bubble Burst New Evidence, online Available from http//faculty. hicagobooth. edu/brian. barry/igm/TheJapaneseEmploymentSystem. pdf Accessed 10 May 2009 Economist (2005) The sun also rises, online Available from http//www. economist. com/displaystory. cfm? story_id=4454244 Accessed 10 May 2009 Economist (1998) Fallen Idols, online Available from http//www. economist. com/displaystory. cfm? story_id=4454244 Accessed 10 May 2009 Ornatowski, G. K (1998) The End of Japanese-Style Human Resource Management? Sloan Management Review, online Available from http/ /sloanreview. mit. edu/the-magazine/articles/1998/spring/3937/the-end-of-japanesestyle-human-resource-management/ Accessed 10 May 2009

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Active Vibration Control Importance In Mechanical Systems Engineering Essay

This literature study is based on active totter simpleness and its technology importance in bodys ( mechanical ) . alert palpitate instruction is the social occasion of minimizing, insulating or r argonfying forces impresent by shaking, by actively using opposing forces in order to acquire a desirable condition which may be vibration-free or a minimized status.The active confine of get is of great importance in design of mechanical remainss akin choppers, where the usance of active quiver look into order, has offered a better comfort for the rider with less weight than the inactive rescript, which is the 2nd header method of commanding quiver. Active control is besides used in bowdlerize downing low absolute frequency quiver in constructions by utilizing lightweight quiver actuators comparable piezoelectric ceramic. Many industrial operations and procedures can non take topographic point if the industrial equipments ar non operated in a vibration-free status, this necessitates quiver control. Since quiver may be caused by the instability in most machine parts ( revolving parts like bearings, shaft, cogwheels, flywheel etc ) the cognition of active quiver control is indispensable for the machine national decorator in order to bring forth an efficient and effectual machine schemas for modern twenty- cardinal hours fabrication. Active quiver control has up to four methods viz. intercellular substance method, theoretical impermanent component method, frequence response map and receptances method. The receptance method involve poles and zeros arrangement ( assignment of lineament make up of a square matrixs ) which changes the immanent frequences to avoid resonance.However, the construct of classical quiver absorber can be related to a Frahm who registered US patent in 1909 for a eddy muffling quiver organic structures 1 . The theory of quiver soaking up foremost appeared in 1928 2 in an unfastened literature and was make widel y forthcoming in 1943 in the first edition of a book authored by J.P Den Hartog, Mechanical quiver 3 . There are both chief types of quiver control viz. the inactive structural rescript and active quiver control. The application of the former can be traced back to the extend of Duncan 4 . In 1941 he determined the impulsive features of a compound musical arrangement formed from two or more sub systems with complecting belongingss and known receptances.The assignment of characteristic root of a square matrix in active control community started in 1960 s when Wonham 5 gave an exhibition that poles of a system could be assigned by a province feedback in a state of affairs whereby the system can be controlled. Kautsky 6 described the numerical method for natural event robust ( good conditioned ) solutions to the province feedback pole assignment job by specifying a solution infinite of linearly independent eigenvectors, coordinated to the characteristic root of a square matrixs required. The solutions gotten were such that the sensitiveness of poles assigned to disturbances in the systems and addition matrices was reduced. One of the interesting facet in active quiver control is the quadratic characteristic root of a square matrix job ( QEP ) taken into history by Tisseur and Mbergeen 7 , they described the assorted linearization i.e. switch of QEP into additive ordinaryized eigenvalue jobs with the equivalent characteristic root of a square matrixs and computational method besides integrating as many types of package available like matlab.A study of experimental and theoretical survey of active quiver control was carried out, with some documents that contained the relevant surveies. The literature study majorly contained past obtaink work done by little figure of establishments and experts with their different techniques and so follows a brief treatment on documents of peculiar involvement.1.1 Experimental Surveies1.1.1 Techniques u sed in University of SouthamptonNumerous sum of work has been produce, this mainly uses advance feedback. In publication of Brennan et Al. 8 , five different actuators were compared ( magnetostrictive, electromagnetic and lead piezoelectric types ) . There was a proportionateness in all the devices between supplanting and force generating public presentation hence a method of mensurating the balance was deduced. Improvement would hold been made, because it was written as far back as 1998, particularly in piezoelectric.Decentralised speed feedback is described in publication work of Serrand and Elliot 9 , on a unyielding construction with a brace of about collocated detectors electromagnetic actuators, which are in parallel with a inactive saddle horse. Two control channels which are independent were used and shown to rarefy low politeness ( 40dB ) mostly and be stable to little fluctuations in mass. The published work of Sang-Myeong et Al, . 10 Shows that the decentraliz ed control is expanded to a stiff construction with four detectors and actuators, and so follows the same flummox up in a flexible construction 11 . The control strategy was used to rarefy low frequence which is less than 100 Hz quiver by up to 14 dubnium, limited by the instability of the low frequence introduced from filtrating percentage point displacements.State feedback from speed and force measuring Benassi et al 12 is used on a 3 grade of immunity ( DOF ) system, utilizing an actuator of individual inactiveness. The feedback cringle of interior force ( with a phase-lag compensator ) , reduces the natural frequence and adds considerable muffling. adjudge attempt and proceeds can be compared to a linear-quadratic governor ( LQ R ) .In published work of Benassi et al. , 13 , the same system was used for displacement feedback, with PID used to forestall the sagging of the actuator and to modify the natural frequence of the actuator. Highpass filters are used on the fou r on the four detector and actuator decentralized system Brennan et al 14 to give an fading of 20 dubnium for manners at frequence less than 100 Hz.In ( Brennan et al, 2007 ) , the instability introduced from filtrating as a consequence of stage displacement is tested on the two actuator system described in the published work of Serrand and Elliot ( 2000 ) . Condition for stableness of supplanting, speed and acceleration feedback using highpass filters were developed, it was besides shown that high damping and relatively low corner frequences are desirable for supplanting and speed feedback.Gatti et Al ( 2007 ) used collocated piezoelectric transducer actuators and accelerometers, and dampen quiver by explicitly ciphering the minimum kinetic energy of the system. The system was found to be unstable when much lower additions lower than maximal theoretical were used. An absolute speed control ( AVF ) strategy ( Yan Et Al, Journal of sound quiver ) was shown to be effectual at rare fying merely low frequence manners therefore get jobs with the actuator resonances which is stabilized by a lead compensator.1.1.2 Techniques used in Virginia TechWilliam et al 11 provides a general reappraisal of the operation of four different types of piezoceramic actuators, with the preliminary trial of d31 consequence of Macro Fibre Composites ( MFCs ) on a 1.8 meters diam inflatable toroid ( hard state of affairs to prove, because of its flexibleness ) . Sodano et al 12 ran Single Input Single Output ( SISO ) and ninefold Input and Multiple Output ( MIMO ) tests on the same construction, utilizing MFC detectors 13 .In order to excite the whole toroid, a better-looking propulsion force was required ( 800V through the MFC, 0-200Hz ) . Comparison was made between control strategies utilizing both hard-boileds of detectors on the toroid construction utilizing PPF ( Sodano, 2004 ) . The cleaner The PVDF detectors allowed lower fading when compared to that of cleaner signa ls from the MFCs which allow a significantly higher fading. imperious Velocity Feedback ( PVF ) was used by Tarazaga et al 15 to stifle a little inflatable construction, and compared instrument like optical maser vibrometer, accelerometer and strain gage detectors. four-spot FMC actuators were used while their control parametric quantities were tuned by manus. A 23 dubnium decrease was achieved in one manner with feeling via optical maser vibrometer, 7.db with strain gage.Alhazza et al 16 conducted a elaborate probe on delayed feedback of a non-collocated PZT patch/accelerometer brace clamped on alight beam, to stifle two manners at the same time. It has been shown that the muffling control is maximised where each pole has existent parts of similar magnitudes.Mahmoodi et al 17 used modified positive place feedback on an aluminum beam with two braces of MFC sensor/actuator. They besides used realtime Fast Fourier Transform monitoring in dSPACE to about find the resonances of t he system and alter the frequence of the accountant consequently. A big amplitude decrease was achieved in two manners ( 23-37 dubnium ) and a little alteration in frequences as an inauspicious consequence.1.1.3 Techniques used in BrusselsPerumont have written many documents solely the most recent one is based on isolation of warheads. Hanieh and Perumont 18 used relative and built-in compensators to cut down the natural frequence of an isolator construction by half ( 50 % ) , although this does non specifically place the poles. They highlighted the usage of built-in addition to brace the system for change magnitude relative addition.Marneffe and Perumont 19 showed that manners can be dampened by nix electrical capacity shunt circuits utilizing PZT actuators every bit good as increase or diminishing the natural frequencies..This method does non stifle every bit good as Integrated Force Feedback ( IFF ) , nevertheless poles are non stipulate clearly. The system can besides sup ply some inactive fading.Preumont et al 20 described decentralized force feedback on six-axis isolator in order to stifle three widely spaced manners of frequence ( 3-400 Hz ) close to 40 dubniums. They discovered that the demand for highpass filter with a really low corner frequence whish stabilise the integrated signals has a side consequence on the fading.1.1.4 Techniques used in Other InstitutionsGaudenzi et al 21 app double-dealingd place and speed feedback to a collocated PZT sensor/actuator on a clamped beam. Control additions are calculated in order to give specified muffling values in each instance, the frequence displacements are besides calculated but non clearly specified.Song et Al 22 compared Strain Rate Feedback ( SRF ) and Positive Position Feedback ( PPF ) for quiver decrease of a beam, utilizing a collocated PZT detector and actuator. They determined SRF damped quivers in about half clip of PPF, but the accountant bandwidth was much smaller.Vasques and Rodrig ues 23 presented a numerical survey which compares unalterable Amplitude Velocity Feedback ( CAVF ) , Changeless Gain Velocity Feedback ( CGVF ) , Linear Quadratic Regulator ( LQR ) and Linear Quadratic Gausssian ( LQG ) control on a beam with a piezoelectric actuator/sensor collocated brace. The usage of Kalman-Bucy filter and its part to the possibility of spillover were demonstrated. CAVF and CGVF require distinction of the end product signals, which compromise stableness badly. The greatest fading was attached by LQG control schemes with the lowest actuator force.Kolvalovs et al 24 model the effects of MFC actuators as a thermic burden in Finite Element ( thermic enlargement coefficient I = piezoelectric changeless vitamin D / electrode spacing I?es ) , which was compared favorably with trial on a clamped aluminum beam. There was a study of big fading but it was non the control method.PZT detectors and four PZT actuators were used by Kwak and Heo 25 on the legs of an A frame to cut down quiver with Multiple-In-Multiple-Out PPF control. Block opposite technique was used by them to stifle more braces of pole than actuators, and to increase stableness. A decrease in natural frequences was predicted and observed, but are non explicitly specified in the control.Qiu et al 26 used non-collocated PZTs to command the first and the first two flexing manner of a beam. Lowpass filter and stage displacements were used to greatly lower the possibility of spillover. Their Variable Structure Control ( VSC ) uses the built-in of signal mensural.Pole arrangement in procedure technology seems to be prevailing and reasonably implemented in a broad mode, for case Michiels et al 27 used the province feedback and the consequence of the clip hold was included. However, the chief aim in these systems is stability non the fading.1.1.5 Application of Pole PlacementAn interesting facet in pole arrangement is the work done by Mahmoodi et al 17 , where the accountant wi th regard to the natural frequences of the system determined from the extremums of a FFT in dSPACE. A technique which is the same could let the control of time-varying mass, the FFT moldiness be buffered must be buffered, hence the adaptative control is comparatively slow. There may be demand of existent clip robust curve adjustment.In published work of Kwak and Heo 25 , it is shown that in an effort to delegate more poles than actuators with a PPF accountant, finding control additions utilizing the pseudo opposite may non be desiable. This cogency of this may besides be applicable for the receptance method.A figure of surveies have shown that the addition in truth of MFCs as detectors when compared to other strain gages and accelerometers could better the anticipations of the control addition. The simplest accountants, like displacement feedback were non every bit effectual as more complex accountants, but the optimum control strategy is non clear. It was shown that highpass filt ers and turning away of taking derived functions of measured signal are necessary. In some conditions of PZT actuators, lowpass filters were required because they can readily excite manners of high frequence and give rise to spillover.1.2 Theoretical SurveiesSome few documents were selected so that the consecutive development of the subject can be presented without adverting all the research works conducted by the research workers. Before the theoretical reappraisal it is imperative mood to present some mathematical theory of quiver suppression for the intent of familiarization with the active quiver control.In general the rule of active quiver control by method of receptance modelled by Mottershead and Ram 28 is as followsSee the three systems M, C, and K with province feedback Where, M is the mass system C is the damping system K is jumping system ( stiffness )Ma ( T ) + Ca? ( T ) + Kx ( T ) = degree Fahrenheit ( T ) ( clip sphere ) ( 1 )Ma ( T ) + Ca? ( T ) + Kx ( T ) = bu ( T ) + P ( T ) ( 2 )B is a vector while u ( T ) is a scalar.U ( T ) = ( gTx + fTa? )U ( T ) = -gTx fTa?Then equation ( 2 ) becomesMa ( T ) + Ca? ( T ) + Kx ( T ) = B ( -gTx fTa? ) + P ( T ) ( 3 )Ma ( T ) + Ca? ( T ) + Kx ( T ) = bgTx bfTa? + P ( T ) ( 4 )Under a existent status, each non vigour footings in B means the usage of an actuator while in g or degree Fahrenheit means the usage of detector.In frequence sphere, the consequence in equation ( 4 ) gives Ms2 + Cs + K +b ( gT + foot ) x ( s ) =p ( s )It is obvious that the close-loop dynamic stiffness is changed by the rank-1 alteration B ( gT+ foot ) due to the province feedback when one input is used.The opposite of a matrix with a rank-1 alteration in footings of the opposite of the professional matrix is given by The Sherman-Morrison expression 29 .Hence, the close-loop receptance matrix isA ( s ) = H ( s ) H ( s ) B ( gT + foot ) H ( s )1+ ( gT + foot ) H ( s ) BH ( s ) is equal to the opposite of Ms + Cs + K . It m ay be determined practically from the matrix of receptances H ( tungsten ) measured at the sensor/actuator coordinates.1.2.1 Receptance Modelling TechniquesMottershead and Ram 28 concluded that the system matrices M, C and K are non required to be evaluated in delegating poles and nothings in active quiver control when utilizing receptance method.Duncan 30 and Sofrin 31 were the first set of people to frame up paper which addressed the job of uniting two or more dynamical systems in 1941 and 1945 severally. The job considered by them was based on finding the dynamic behavior of a compound system which was formed as a consequence of uniting two or more subsystems with known receptances and known belongingss which are interconnected. The technique creates the footing for the job of direct structural alteration by receptance modeling, which the elaborate account has been given by Bishop and Johnson 32 . Ewins 33 gave a general expression for finding the receptances of a comp ound system utilizing measured receptances from another constituent. In this, the matrix of connection-point receptances need to be inverted, this is known to be an improperly posed job. Berman 33, 34 has explained the job in flexibleness matrix inversion to obtain stiffness and frailty versa.Weissenburger 35 presented the first paper to speak about hoist structural alteration job. In this job, the aim is to find the necessary alteration to put natural frequences and antiresonances ( assignment of characteristic root of a square matrix ) . The receptance in the receptance patterning method proposed by Weissenburger got decomposed into abbreviated set of spectra and manners. Weissenburger s work was extended by Pomazal autonomic nervous systems Synder 36 to muffle system and see the best pick of alteration co-ordinates.Dowell 36 used an attack called quotient attack considered the general form of puting natural frequences after adding mass and spring to modify. The straightf orward procedure applied in simple unit-rank alterations by accouterment of a mass, is the assignment of individual natural frequence. It merely requires the measuring of the point receptance at the co-ordinate of alteration at the frequence to be assigned for the value of the mass added to be determined for the intent of delegating a individual natural frequence. In pattern, the add-on of a grounded spring is more hard than an added mass.Receptance modeling for the assignment of antiresonances was foremost applied in UK chopper industry in 1972. It was discovered by Vincent 37 that when a construction is excited at a point Q with fixed frequence is modified by adding a spring between two co-ordinates r and s, so the response at another point P will follow out a circle when it is plotted in the complex rake when the stiffness of the spring is being varied from subtraction to plus eternity. Hence there is a decrease in job of quiver suppression to happening point on the circle ne arest to the complex response beginning. Thorough description of this method was given by Done and Hughes 38 and was further analysed by Nagy 39 to include Vincent circle analysis of a spring-mass absorber.The job of delegating antiresonance was discovered once more after a long period of no activities by Li et al 40 , but at that place was a restriction in their analysis by the necessity to find the manners of the grounded system that have characteristic root of a square matrixs matching to the antiresonances. The manner was determined numerically from the mass and stiffness matrices already reduced in size by the eliminating row and column. The sensitivenesss of the system antiresonances were considered by Mottershead 41 . Vibration node was created by Mottershead and Lallement 42 by call offing pole with a nothing utilizing a receptance patterning method. Force restraint to measured point and cross-receptances was applied by Mottershead 43 in order to find characteri stic root of a square matrixs ( pole ) , eigenvector and receptances of the forced systems. Then, add-on of multitudes to a beam leads to the accomplishment of delegating antiresonances in a physical experiment for the first clip.1.2.2 Active Control TechniquesMottershead and Ram 28 , concluded that active quiver control offers much greater flexibleness in delegating coveted dynamic behavior ( like poles ) than the inactive alteration because all poles can be assigned to order arbitrary location if the system is governable while in inactive alteration there is a restriction of symmetric alteration.In the theory of automatic control, a cardinal consequence provinces that the moral force of a system a can be regulated by delegating the characteristic root of a square matrixs, or poles, of the system utilizing a individual input force, provided that the system is governable 44 . Another option to modulate the moral force of a system is to utilize fivefold control forces 45 . The usage of multiple control forces lead to accomplishment of redundancy which has been used by Kautsky et al 3 to do certain that there is hardiness of the control system in the sense that the pole assigned are non sensitive to disturbances in the parametric quantities of the system. For stableness to be achieved, all the system s pole must lie on the left-hand side of the complex savourless. In every bit much as natural quivers are described normally by finite component theoretical account which are of big dimensions, it is non normally easy to cognize whether all the characteristic root of a square matrixs possess negative existent parts, particularly when a large-space structural control system is being designed 46,47 . While some characteristic root of a square matrixs associated with big oscillation are being relocated, other characteristic root of a square matrix of which there was no purpose of altering them, shifted towards the righ hand-side of the complex plane and thi s may take to instability of the system. Such a procedure is called the spillover of poles. Saad 48 developed an algorithm for the selective changing of the spectrum of the dynamic system consists of a set of first-order differential equation. For the partial pole assignment job associated with systems undergoing quiver, a closed-form solution was derived in 49 , where there was resettlement of some coveted characteristic root of a square matrixs to order places, while all other characteristic root of a square matrixs remain unchanged. The usage of a certain perpendicularity relation made this accomplishable which applies to a general viscously-damped system. Generalisation has been made refering this method to include multi-input control forces. In this, little control attempt was control by redundancy in the control forces.1.2.3 Continuous System TechniqueThe job of direct characteristic root of a square matrix of a system which is additive and uninterrupted and in combination with another system is good understood. Danek 50 used Green s maps in obtaining the characteristic equation and natural frequences of two beams which are connected at distinct points. Classical method of dividing variables was used by Nicholson and Bergman 51 in order to analyze free quiver of two types of combined additive undamped dynamical systems. Both systems need the add-on of oscillator to beams. Bergman and Nicholson 52 besides showed that for a additive combined system dwelling of a viscously damped simple beam and a figure of viscously damped oscillators, the response could be solved in closed signifier. Conditionss were given for the being of classical normal manners in a combined viscously damped additive system and the precise solution for the response to an arbitrary excitement when this status is satisfied.In uninterrupted systems, nodal points can be specified by utilizing inactive or active control. The control force in footings of an infinite merchandise of characteristic root of a square matrixs was expressed by Ram 53 . The consequence is based on certain relation that connects the eigenfunctions to a merchandise of characteristic root of a square matrixs 54 .It was shown by Singh and Ram 55 that anodal point in a vibrating beam may be assigned bythe usage of manner form informations associated with auxiliary set of partial differential equations.In decision,