Monday, September 30, 2019
The legacy of the slave trade revived in the aura of the Nineteenth Century. After the abolition of slavery forms of labor that inquired the exploitation of workers remained alive. The most prominent was indentured servitude, which became one of the driving forces for global interdependence. The necessity for cheap laborers and desire to strengthen the economy stimulated the exploitation and transportation of indentured servants from Asia, Africa, the Pacific Islands and India, thus creating a self-sufficient and diverse environment in the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s powerhouses. In response to the abolition of slavery, the importation of migrant laborers for agricultural work to the Americas was seen as a necessity. In Document 2, an editorial in the National Mercury on the visit of Sir George Grey, a British colonial governor, the author suggests that in order to gain profit from the sugar cultivation more laborers are needed to work. In this article, the servants as seen as an essential tool for their success, only valuing them for their own benefit. In addition, in Herman MerivaleÃ¢â¬â¢s excerpt, Document 1, he explains that the indentured servants are not slaves, but are aised like recruits for the military service. Both documents enforce the constant necessity for workers in countries like South America, North America and Britain. Further notion of the significance that indentured servitude had on the Americas could be obtained by government statistics on the economy in the Americas before and after the years of indentured servitude. The spread of indentured servitude in the years 1834-1919 connected Africa with the Caribbean and with Asia, as well as Asia with the Americas, as shown in the map in Document 3. The number of slaves working in Mauritius are shown in Document 6, mphasizing on the difference in gender. The conditions and regulations of the indentured servants were ridged and strict. In the images shown in Document 5, the circumstances of Asian Indian indentured laborers in sugar plantations and harvesting sugar cane are explicitly shown as backbreaking. Various workers to fulfill the arduous work became the demand of Europeans, specifically Dutch. Document 7 also shows the limited rights and high demands for indentured servants in an agreement provided by a recruiter for British Guiana, which clearly explains the conditions and rights of an indentured servant. The excerpt Ã¢â¬Å"Everyday except SundayÃ¢â¬ ¦ Seven hours in field or ten hours in the factory buildings,Ã¢â¬ shows how strenuous the conditions were for a worker. The migration of servants marked global interconnectedness that reflected the power that countries held and the submission of workers for their own benefit. The mark that indentured servitude left on the countries exporting the servants could be explored more in depth with a diary or journal from a wife in Japan, China, or India showing her feelings and emotions toward the migration of her husband. Also, an account of the economy in that country would show the financial position of countries exporting servants would how the effect that indentured servitude had on the other countries and not only the Americas. Although it was a mutual benefit, the profit gained by the servants was enjoyed. The migration of servants from one continent to another signified the cultural diversity in the Americas and did not fail to emphasize the subordinate position held by the indentured servants. This wide spread of cultures was also perceived in demographics, depicted in a chart in Document 4. Document 4 displays the numbers of servants from Indian, China and Japan exported to tropical-like lands, such as Trinidad, Cuba, and Hawaii. The diaspora of Indians, Chinese, and Japanese to foreign lands resulted in ethnic and cultural diversity in later generations. In addition, as the chart in Document 9 shows the percentage of Asian, Japanese and Chinese migration to specific lands in the year from 1920-1921. Although one of the essential results of the migration of indentured servants in the early Twentieth-Century was the diversity, the poor class of servants suffered from the aspects of indentured servitude. In a letter from an indentured servant, Document 8, the servant complains about the harsh and strict hours and low wage. The letter serves as a contradiction or opposite position as the document proposed in Document 7, in which the rights guaranteed and hours provided were lowered and diminished the servantÃ¢â¬â¢s right. Although indentured servants enjoyed the title, Ã¢â¬Å"free workers,Ã¢â¬ reality proved that slaverys old ways were still set forth in the way indentured servitude was practiced. The rise in industry and desire improve the economy aroused the need for indentured servitude. This system not only forced the intermarriage of people creating diversity but also was a tremendous benefit for the developing capitalist ocieties in the Americas and Great Britain. The abolished system of slavery instigated the rise of indentured servitude. People migrated with signed contracts from one continent to the other. Although they were considered free, it was only a title since they were subjugated to strict working hours and low wages, conditions too similar to those of a slave. The transformation that slavery had into indentured servants created a modifications to labor systems that are still seen today. Indentured servitude is still practiced nowadays, with the unjust and inhumane regulations.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Relevant Facts Our Client, Froogle (Ã¢â¬Å"FroogleÃ¢â¬ ) has retained our firm to file suit againt Mary, a small manufacturer and retailer of downhill snow skis. Froogle and Mary signed an agreement in January of 2012. On or about March 15, 2012 Froogle discovered that Mary had breached several of the terms of their agreement. We filed suit in Superior Court for the County of Monterey in Salinas, California on behalf of Froogle on May 31,2012.Mary, a resident of Vermont, responded by filing a motion for non-conveniens claiming that because her business and residence are in Vermont, California has no jurisdiction over her. Mary violated the terms of her agreement and should be brought to answer for her actions in a California court of law, as FroogleÃ¢â¬â¢s main place of business is Salinas, California. Issue Presented The issue is whether or not Froogle has jurisdiction over Mary who is an out of state resident and business owner.Applicable Law Under the California Code of Civil Procedure Ã¢â¬Å"A court of this state may exercise jurisdiction on any basis not inconsistent with the Constitution of this state or of the United States. Ã¢â¬ CCP Ã §410. 10 Also known as CaliforniaÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Long Arm StatueÃ¢â¬ the law provides that the use is usually constitutional Ã¢â¬Å"where the defendant has certain minimum contacts with the forum state and there has been reasonable notice of the action against him or her. (Cite)Additionally, under the ruling Ã¢â¬Å"Any person may maintain an action or proceeding in a court of this state against a foreign corporation or nonresident person where the action or proceeding arises out of or relates to any contract, agreement, or undertaking for which a choice of California law has been made in whole or in part by the parties thereto and which (a) is a contract, agreement, or undertaking, contingent or otherwise, relating to a transaction involving in the aggregate not less than one million dollars ($1,000,000), and ( b) contains a provision or provisions under which the foreign corporation or nonresident agrees to submit to the jurisdiction of the courts of this state. Ã¢â¬ In 9th Circuit Court of Appeals Gator. com Corp. , Plaintiff-appellant, v. L. L. Bean, Inc. , Defendant, appelee, L. L. Bean had an internet catalog and mail order site or a Ã¢â¬Å"virtual storeÃ¢â¬ . Court held that LL Bean's marketing and retail activities and Ã¢â¬Å"virtual storeÃ¢â¬ created a Ã¢â¬Å"consistent and substantial pattern of business relations in California, sufficient to confer personal jurisdiction over the Maine-based company [Gator}. Ã¢â¬ In Pavlovich v.Superior Court, the court addressed the issue of internet and jurisdiction holding that Ã¢â¬Å"[t]he Internet, as a mode of communication and a system of information delivery is new, but the rules governing the protection of property rights, and how that protection may be enforced under the new technology, need not be. Ã¢â¬ 2001 Cal. App. LEXI S 623 (Cal. Ct. App. August 7, 2001) However, in Zippo Mfg. Co. v. Zippo Dot Com, Inc. , the court determined that Ã¢â¬Å"A passive website that does little more than make information available is not generally grounds for the exercise of personal jurisdiction. Ã¢â¬ It then goes on to say that Ã¢â¬Å"The middle ground is occupied by the interactive websites where a user can exchange information with the host computer.(Zippo test cases) 957 F. Supp. 1119 (W. D. Pa. 1997). The middle ground definition cited above is key in FroogleÃ¢â¬â¢s case because Froogle was not simply a passive website. Users were able to click on the Froogle Ã¢â¬Å"storeÃ¢â¬ and search for items. The store then quoted pricing and directed the user to the defendantÃ¢â¬â¢s website or alternatively they could purchase through Froogle, using their credit card or other financing available and Froogle would forward the order to the defendant to fulfill the order. In Frank Snowney v. Harrahs the plaintiff res erved a room by telephone from his California residence. He was told that the room would cost $50/night plus tax.When he received the bill he paid a $3 energy surcharge. Plaintiff filed a class action against Harrahs alleging they charged him and other guests more than the advertised priceÃ¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ The defendants filed a motion to quash for lack of personal jurisdiction, arguing that they were incorporated and based out of Nevada, they conducted no business in California and had no bank accounts in California. The plaintiff submitted that Ã¢â¬Å"the defendants 1-advertised extensively to California residents through billboards in California, newspapers and radio & television; 2) maintained an interactive website that accepted reservations from California residents. The Court concluded that defendants had sufficient contacts in California to justify jurisdiction in the state. 116 Cal. App. 4th 996, (2004). Application to Our Case Froogle is a California corporation with home o ffices in Salinas, California. FroogleÃ¢â¬â¢s contract was signed by the defendant and the defendant was well aware of FroogleÃ¢â¬â¢s location. FroogleÃ¢â¬â¢s software was developed in California and their servers are all located in various parts of California Ã¢â¬â Froogle is clearly a California product. As the defendant used online transactions through FroogleÃ¢â¬â¢s site to set up their account and perform other implementation functions it can be easily argued that this was a California based transaction.Further to this, the defendant benefitted from FroogleÃ¢â¬â¢s high profile in California, expanding their customer base throughout the state and thus increasing their sales. The California Code protects FroogleÃ¢â¬â¢s right to jurisdiction in California under the Ã¢â¬Å"Long ArmÃ¢â¬ statute. Although there are rare circumstances where this can be overturned, the statute provides the ability for a California corporation that has entered under a contract or simil ar document with a non-resident partner to gain jurisdiction over that entity should breach of that contract occur. The Snowney case more than implies that if one enters into an agreement with a California entity, and a breach or other violation of the agreement occurs, the parties will more than likely be bringing their action to a California court.The reservation can certainly be interpreted to be a contract as it binds both parties to an obligation and by acceptance of the terms of a reservation, the parties have entered into an agreement or contract. Froogle has the right as a California corporation to file their action in the state of California. The defendant knew it was entering into a contract with a California corporation based out of Salinas, CA. The defendant chose the website due to its power in the retail internet market. It also took advantage of the plaintiffÃ¢â¬â¢s website store which brought leads to the defendants store from prospective customers. The defendantÃ¢ â¬â¢s business benefitted greatly from its presence in the plaintiffÃ¢â¬â¢s search engine and webstore. The defendant has no right to jurisdiction in this case and this proceeding should continue in California.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Marketing Plan for Microsoft Xbox in Gaming Console Market in India Group 10: Ankur Chaudhary (1211326)Gaurav Parashar (1211340) Nikhil Wasnik (1211398)Shanthosh P (1211381) Saakshi Mahajan (1211378) Backdrop: The current gaming console market in India is around INR 900 crores . The most prominent players in this industry comprise of Sony (PS Series), Nintendo (Wii Series) and Microsoft (XBOX Series).The market share of Xbox in India is 23% by sales, compared to PS SeriesÃ¢â¬â¢ share of 40%-45% , which is in contrast to the global statistics where Xbox enjoys a market share of around 45%-47% compared to PS SeriesÃ¢â¬â¢ share of around 25-28%. The stark difference in the market share is a case for assessing the lag Xbox suffers, with regard to its marketing strategy in India. Project Details: In this project, we aim to study the gaming console market in India, specifically looking at current marketing of Microsoft Xbox in India and compare it with global markets (US and other deve loped markets).We will explore the performance of Xbox v/s the Sony Play station (current market leader in India) The market which we are studying is urban teenagers/young adults (age 10-25) and gaming consoles Gaming consoles in India have a market penetration of only 2% but with the increase in sales of big screen TV's and leisure wants of the urban teenager, the market is expected to grow at a fast pace in the next decade. We will explore the current marketing process of Microsoft Xbox in terms of integrated marketing mix and the customer ; partner relations.Gaming consoles belong to the hedonic category of products where rationalizing evaluation of alternatives by the shopper is important. The purchase for gaming consoles is typical approved by the parent and the user is the teenager. We aim to explore the decision pattern used individually by the parent and teenager. Some of the factors affecting consumer behavior in India are unique because of traditionally lesser spending on games, piracy in PC games and parental fear that games interfere in studies. We aim to do qualitative analysis the market, through surveys and interviews.The gaming console market has been segmented into customers using PS2 (cheaper old technology but still a step up for gaming in India), PS3 (premium cutting edge gaming) and PSP (gaming on the go primarily for the kids). We aim to study Microsoft's market segmentation, targeting and position in terms of its offerings like XBOX, XBOX 360 and Kinect. Overall we would address how Microsoft should reposition its gaming consoles in Indian markets to gain more market share and build profitable customer relationships.
Friday, September 27, 2019
Gender sociology - Essay Example Majority of the researches that investigated the behavioral aspect of gender stereotypes had used extent of perceptual prejudice as an indicator of support for media censorship. Even though using the extent of perceptual prejudice as indicator of advocacy for media censorship has a number of empirical support, its fundamental theory appears doubtful since it falls short in distinguishing between those who view pornography to have great impact on themselves and on other people, and those who view pornography to have lesser impact on themselves and on other people (ibid). Feminist have even before been critical of liberalism. Even though the emphasis of such disapproval are diverse, ranging from allegations of male prejudice in the grounding framework of the person to perceptual blindness over the qualities of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives, such as enslavement relations, in which issues of equality emerge, they share in the argument that open-minded political standards conceptually abandon issues of gender equality. Wide-ranging liberalism, nevertheless, discovered a number of feminist partners, who argue that liberal ideas of independence echo the heart of feminist values. A substantial deal of research has investigated the substance and influence of conventional types of pornography in the previous decades. Findings of researches conducted beforehand on pornography implies that pornographic materials portray women consistently as sexual objects or sexual products who take pleasure on suffering or disgrace (Dworkin, 1989). Women are also shown in circumstances that are shameful, corrupting, and unbecoming (Dobson, 1997). In a qualitative research, Jensen and Dines (1998, pp. 90-98) discovered the following aspects essential to the embodiment of sexuality in pornography: hierarchy or the imbalance in power was devastating, regularly situating women at the bottom of the hierarchy;
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Any engineering ethical issue happend in the LAST TWO MONTHS - Essay Example At a distance of about 1500 miles towards the west of Cape Town in South Africa, oil spill occurred in the south Atlantic that put millions of Northern Rockhopper penguinsÃ¢â¬â¢ life in danger (Ã¢â¬Å"Fragile EarthÃ¢â¬ 1). In the present time, the most rare and endangered Penguin specie is the Rockhopper Penguin. The very specie ha been affected the most by this incident. It is quite likely that this incident becomes sufficient to make this specie completely extinct. Tons of diesel fuel and crude oil have soaked their furs and blocked their nostrils. A lot of penguins have died since the spill occurred. This is the most severe oil spill that has occurred in 2011 and is a potential issue of engineering ethics. The oil discharging company remained highly unethical in its practice. In this course, we have been taught that engineers should discharge the waste in ways that are environment friendly. The oil spill in the south Atlantic was totally unfriendly towards the environment. Wo rks Cited: Ã¢â¬Å"Fragile Earth: Oil Spill, March 16 2011, Threatens world's most endangered species of Penguin.Ã¢â¬ 2011. Web. 3 May. 2011. . Harris, Charles E., Davis, Michael, Pritchard, Michael S., and Rabins, Michael J. Ã¢â¬Å"Engineering Ethics: What? Why? How? And When.Ã¢â¬ Journal of Engineering Education. (1996): 93-96. Web. 3 May. 2011.
Why Has Strike Activity Increased Recently Compared With The Past - Essay Example As Cohn (1993, p. 8)states, Ã¢â¬Ëemployers usually raise wages as a result of economic pressureÃ¢â¬â¢. Such power of strike comes from its paralysing effect, which is detrimental to the interest of capital and to the economy, because lost hours means lost profits and lost profits could mean lost revenue to the government. Aside from its adverse economic effect is its adverse political effect, which cannot be ignored, because of its possible ripple effect [loss of confidence of foreign investment]. Thus unsurprisingly, employers and governments had vehemently refused to recognise strike as workersÃ¢â¬â¢ legal course of action in airing their demands/grievances. And even when strike was finally recognised as among the right of workers, it was loaded with requirements. For example, for a strike to be protected [legal] the workersÃ¢â¬â¢ issue must be strikable and the strike conducted should follow the prescribed procedures (Jordan et al. 2009, p. 72). Contrary to employersÃ¢â¬â ¢ desire, this has further strengthened the labour movement. As defined, Ã¢â¬Ëstrike is an organized collective work stoppage undertaken by employees to pressure their employer or employers into meeting their demandsÃ¢â¬â¢ (Dictionary of American History 2003, par. 1). ... For example, student strikes, which are generally characterised by the refusal of organised students to attend their classes, have left their indelible marks in history Ã¢â¬âAmong the most notable are the student strike of 1970, which had successfully mobilised universities against US aggression in Vietnam and Cambodia and had also successfully transformed the institutional structure of the academy (Katsiaficas 1987, p. 127); the Athens Polytechnic uprising in 1973 which led to the successful downfall of the Greek military junta of 1967-1974 (Panourgia 1995, p. 32); the 2005 Quebec student strike, which opposed the Charest governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s policies of tuition fee deregulation and reduction in student grant funding (Lawrence 2006, p. 10). In the past, especially during the industrial revolution when workers were much needed and much exploited en mass, strikes had been the best found weapon of workers to fighting for their rights to be recognised, such as the right to be unionise d, the right for humane working conditions, the right for decent wage, and more. Thus incidences of strike activity were unsurprisingly high. To bring their employers to the negotiating table, workers have to be unionised; to be recognised as union, workers have to hold a strike; for their strike to be successful, workers union has to be strong. As such, the improved conditions of labour have been largely attributed to the rising power of organised labour, Cornwall (1994, p. 31) says. Following the historical evolution of the labour movement and the recognition of its right to strike with its corresponding improved labour condition, two assumptions can be reached: first, that strike activity is more likely to increase when the economy is in downturn and that strike activity is less
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Ideal Sampling Frame in Marketing Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 4
Ideal Sampling Frame in Marketing - Assignment Example The scale is mostly used by marketers when previous information about a particular product is not available. If the marketer simply base his decision of manufacturing a product on the basis of the results that state that more consumer has selected the probably will buy and definitely will buy the product, then he may end up making a mistake because usually very low number of consumers who state that definitely will buy might not actually buy the product. Ã The ideal sampling frame is a term used to denote a sample frame in which the entire population is accessible and no one is missing, this does not take place in the real world. In the absence of such frame, an alternate way called representative sampling can be utilized to determining the same sample frame may be used with aid of characteristics of the sample that need to be tested. Ã Probability sampling is referred to the selection of samples that are selected on a random basis and not in accordance with the convenience of the researcher. Non-probability sampling arises when samples are selected in a random manner in accordance with convenience. Example: Conducting a survey of the school you study and selecting school students as sample. Ã
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Discuss how various aspects of physical appearance may influence career success in graduate jobs.Illustrate your answer with suitable evidence - Essay Example Human Resource Managers are likely to recruit people who trigger productivity in a company. Since beauty lead to such accomplishment, it is presumed that physical appeal gives a competitive edge to an industry. Physical attraction affects female employees more than it does their male counterparts. Women are concerned about their weight because they do not want to be less appealing. Men do not feel the same. Statistics show that women who wear makeup are more likely to be hired than those who do not. Debra Jaliman, a dermatologist confirms that women spend a lot of time and energy working on their skin so that they can have an added advantage during job interviews. This shows that women are aware that they get judged by their looks in their job search. They strive to maintain an attractive, youthful appearance because their credibility will be measured with their looks. DebraÃ¢â¬â¢s client claimed that she was fired, after working with her company for 17 years because she did not look as young as before (Madell, 2015). She was in her early 50s, more desperate to look for effective skin products that will conceal her wrinkles before she re-enters the job market. The emphases on beauty are too much that the surgical business is booming. People go as far as fixing small features on their faces so that they would achieve the ideal look. In the United States, movie characters are given roles according to their looks. The less attractive actors are given bad characters while the beautiful actors play the starring roles. The trend has been in place for over six decades. These are movies which have brought high returns. There is so much pressure on actors to maintain a stunning look that they cannot walk to the grocery shop without putting on makeup. It takes a single photograph from the paparazzi to destroy their image. It is common sense for actors to maintain their looks because their jobs depend on their appearance. The same applies to
Monday, September 23, 2019
A Foreign artist in Paris - Pablo Picasso - Research Paper Example The research paper "A Foreign artist in Paris - Pablo Picasso" discover one of the most incredible artists of modern era. Pablo Picasso is a famous artist from Spain. Artistic impression may have been passed onto the young Picasso, as his father practiced his specialty of painting especially of naturalistic depictions. This gene was passed from the father, as he proved to be an illustrious professor and curator; this in the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s School of Crafts and a local museum respectively. This artistic capacity was evident from a young age, to be trained henceforth from the young age of seven years. His father was responsible for his early learning, especially in oil painting and figure drawing. As a traditional instructor and academic artist, his father was of the belief that proper training necessitated the disciplined learning from existing art masters. In addition was the need for skill in drawing the human body from both live models and plaster casts, with Picasso becoming engross ed in art; to the detriment of his schooling. It is after the tragic death of his sister that the family moved to Barcelona. Later, he was admitted in the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s School of Fine Arts at the age of just 13 years. But his conduct could not sustain him in the center, instead transferring to MadridÃ¢â¬â¢s Royal Academy, which is the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s foremost art center. However, his spirit was wild, being unable to sustain his schooling, to later on stop class attendance at the age of 16 years. His focus was henceforth shifted to other areas of interest.
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Conflicts Are Important Worksheet Essay 1. Pseudo conflicts: A pseudo conflict is where two people are arguing on the same thing only because of their own misunderstandings and misperceptions of what the other person is saying they are arguing on the same side without realizing. In truth they are arguing for the same side they just cant realize it because of their own misconceptions. A pseudo conflict can be easily resolved by people just understanding one another better. 2. Fact conflicts: Fact conflicts are caused by being misinformed, not having enough information to make good decisions and determining what data is relevant. Conflict can also arise when there is disagreement on information collection and communication. 3. Ego conflicts: An ego conflict is where one person goes around picking on and teasing everyone else. They think that they are better than them in every way shape or form, these conflicts can easily be avoided by not thinking your better than everyone else. Everyone is equal whether they like it or not. No one is better than anyone else. It just happens that some people think they are better than other people and so ego conflicts arise. 4. Value conflicts: Value conflicts arise from two different people or groups with different views on something, Such as world views. Or a common one is two groups with different views on good and bad. One group may be stricter than the other on whats good and whats bad, it will then clash with the other group who is less strict. 5. Need conflicts: A need conflict arises when someone starts acting so that they can get one need and it is contradictory to how they need to act to get another need and it presents a major conflict. This conflict can be resolved by getting both needs one at a time but humans by nature want all needs at once and this makes a conflict. Part 2: The Five Conflict Management Styles Describe each of the five conflict management styles and explain the strengths and weaknesses of each. Use paragraph form. 1. Avoiders: The avoider style of managing is not actually thought as a management style at all by many but it reality it is. It arises when someone runs from a conflict or ignores it. Someone may use the avoider style out of outright fear or sometimes many other concerns that can come from an unresolved conflict. With the avoider style it doesnt solve anything and very often makes things worse the people do not understand why the avoider refuses to face the conflict at hand and the avoider cannot understand the problem or the other sideÃ¢â¬â¢s views. 2. Accommodators: The Accommodator is much the same as the avoiders only slightly different in the way that he just agrees to everything, avoids solving the actual problem to placate the other side. If forced to face the problem an accommodator will back off and just follow in the footsteps dictated by the other side, they will be in total denial of any personal needs in favor of meeting the other sides personal desires. The unfortunate downfall of this solution is that problems continue or grow worse or new problems may arise from it. Imagine a mother who gives her daughter whatever she wants whenever she wants simply to keep conflicts from arising. Yes it stops her daughter from whining and complaining. 3. Forcers: The very opposite of an accommodator would be a forcers also known as the competitor. With the forcer they drive to win the argument/battle at all costs even if it means ending a relationship. The competition style can be healthy when it is focused solely on the issue at hand and not on the people around the issue. Such as when someone starts in on each other it can be friendly banter until someones mother is brought into it. Fights between two people often happen during the forcers style but never is it healthy. 4. Compromisers: With the compromiser style it is used to try and meet some of the demands of both sides. Unfortunately with this style everyone wins a little but also they lose a little. Like with two teenagers fighting over the remote to a TV the mother comes in and takes away the remote all together. It resolves the situation but no one is happy with it. It leaves the solution gone but no one happy. People who use compromise are actually making a lazy halfhearted attempt at collaboration. 5. Collaborators: With the collaborating style it gets all parties in the conflict together to come up with a peaceful solution that leaves each party happy. In this type everyone is heard, everyone is happy, and above all relationships are preserved, whether they are relationships between a man and a woman or a relationship between friends or business people. The collaborative style takes a while to plan and execute. While the problem may become worse as time goes on it always leaves everyone happy. Part 3: Collaborative Communication List two methods of collaborative communication and describe how using them can help you avoid conflicts. Two methods of collaboration communication are Boards and Huddles. With Boards its good to have something for the all to see besides hand outs when you have the group all together. That is where white boards or chalk boards come in major handy. That way you can right now main ideas and topics for all to see. This will help stop conflicts because everyone is seeing the same thing so they cant say that their not or say that some are getting more details then they are. The second method is called huddles. Huddles means when you get your group together to brainstorm or think about something make it small little focused groups. Having it in small focused groups will cut down on misunderstandings and confusion which will then help you prosper and fewer arguments may break out.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Looking At The History Of Animation Film Studies Essay Firstly Edward Mybridge used 24 cameras to record the actions of Humans in Motion stop motion pictures. By this method they learned the dynamics of animal movement. In 1880s Thaumatrope two side one side with bird and other side with cage when twirl it the two image superimpose on each other and the bird will appear inside the cage because of the persistance of vission. Zoetrope is the series of images which are drawn and placed in a cylindrical object when the object revolves the images in a cylinder creates the illusion of motion and creates an animation in 1860s. 1878- THE PRAXINOSCOPE It is similar to the Zeotrope but its requiring mirrors to project the image. Emile Reynaud was the first person to opened first movie theater in Paris using the Praxinoscope. 1891- THE KINETOSCOPE The famous American inventor Thomas Alva Edison built on the previous models a model of his own which is considered to be the first cinema machine. It consisted of a box through which a reel of photos were passed, at a rate of 46 images per second, and lit by an incandescent lamp; the spectator could see the show through a peephole. In 1896 he shot the first movie kiss of all time. 1894- THE CINEMATOGRAPH In 1894 the French duo of Lumiere brothers created the first real movie camera. They were intrigued by the Kinetoscope and tried to build a better model themselves. They came up with a machine which the called the Cinematograph which was a combination of a camera and a projector. In 1895 they shot the first movie called Date. This movie is considered to be the birth of cinema. Flip Book is the process of drawing a picture some semilar to the another, by fliping the page the an animation is being create. The similar process is also called cel animation. Cel and Paper Animation Technique By mid of 1910s animation production in US was already controlled by the techniques of cell and paper. America was the most popular in cell animation than in Europe because of assembly line Taylorism that had taken America by storm.Cell Animation wass most appropriate way to the assembly line style of manufacturing because itook a whole line of persons working on very specific and simple respective duties. On the other hand in Europe where the assembly line style of work was not encouragd, clay animation and other form of animation that required only a few individuals working on the set at a time was more popular. Because the actual set can only afford a limited amount of individuals working at one time together and no more this style and other alternative forums of animation became more widely accepted. Disney Cell Animation By drawing each image background and layout of scene one at a time using onion-skinning technique. The element or character which might have movement are drawn on transparent sheet of paper known as Cels and laid over the background which is static. Only moving elements need to be redrawn, backgroung can also be drawn longer and moved to give the effect of travelling. For eg- The simpsons, South park etc. These days most of the work done on Computer. Synched Sound : Steamboat Willie was released on November 18th 1928 by Disney. The first cartoon synchronized with sound titledSteamboat Willie was created by Disney. Firstly Didney tried to get a deal with RCA or Western Electronic to record the sound track of the movie but it was not succided. Then Walt signed contract with botleg Powers Cinephone process and even with disastorous finally the first sound track in a session was recorded with a 15-pice band and his own Micky squeaks. The Future of Animation 3D Animation Toy Story released November 22nd 1995 On enterance of computer graphics and 3D softwares the feature length film of high graphics can virtually be created in 3D. Toy Story is considered to be the first full length animated feature film which ever made on computer graphics. Toy Story was made by the partners Disney and Pixar. Story board of the movie to final render created in CG digital imagery. Combination of 3D 2D The Iron Giant released on 1999. If we see the Iron Giant it looks like the traditionaliy drawn cell by cell but its not true the giant robot is actually made and designed in 3D software and rendered as a 2D image. Autodesk Maya was used to design this character. One of the most important advantage in creating 3D software is that it is easy to animate no need of frame by frame drawing. Also most of the backgrond which looks like 2D were also made in 3D software and rendered as 2D image. Fishing released on 1999 Pacific Data Images use of non realistic photo, realistic water colour effect rendering in 3D software. Character Animation is all about what the character is thinking .At times, he was getting lost. Is he happy or sad? So we punched it up. Rather then having him just look up at the sky, we had him jump off the ground just a bit. That touch better communicates what he is thinking, what his feeling. Thats all I do all day long as a character animator- move 3D models to look like their thinking David Gainey Dinosaur released in 2000 With the development of the technologies of Computer Graphics it introduce a new and more realistic CGI characters accordingly those seen in Dinosaur. The creation, design and implementation of real technology of realistic digital hair on the lemurs are elaborated. Kung Fu Panda was released on November 9th 2008 with the development of advanced technology DVDs and Blue-ray Disc produced by DreamWorks Animation and was distributed by Paramount Pictures. However the concept of Kung Fu Panda has been around since 1993, but the work started on this feature film in 2004 because of the flexibility of the software flexibility or the software development. Berief History of Indian Animation Dadasaheb Phalke is known as the father of Indian cinema he produced 95 movies and 26 short films in his 19 years career. Ek Anek Aur Ekta, a short traditional animated short educational film was released in 1974 was considered as the first animated film from India from Doordarshans Film Division. The theme of the film is to teach children the value of unity. This film was the first animated films from India which was broadcast on National television channel and it was broadcast in the nations official language Hindi. The first Indian animated television series is Ghayab Aaya was released in 1986 and it is directed by Suddhasattwa Basu. And Rodeside Romeo is the first Indian 3D Animated film was written and directed by Jugal Hansraj and was produced by a joint project between Yash Raj Films and the Indian Division of the Walt Disney Company. Development of Animation Principles: Almost all of the principles of traditional animation were developed at the Walt Disney Studios in 1930s. The principles of the animation were developed to make good animation, especially character animation, more realistic and entertaining. All the principle which was developed during the traditional animation is applied to 3D CG animation. There are 28 Principles of Animation out of those 12 principles are considered as basic but most important principles of animation introduced by the Disney animators Ollie Johnstone and Frank Thomas in 19 81 in the book called The Illusion of Disney Animation. Their effort is to produce more realistic animations The Illusion of Life: Disney Animation on the work of the leading Disney animators from the 1930 onward. The book and its principles have become generally adopted and have been referred as the Bible of the Animation Industry. The principles are still having the great relevance or the computer graphics animation.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Development of Sports Psychology Program In this essay I will formulate and validate a mental skills program. The foundations in which this programme will be created will be on the applied sport psychology of self-talk and imagery. The preferred result of this mental skills programme is to help a footballer improve their confidence in regards to their penalty taking ability, which will be achieved by applying the sport psychology theories of self-talk and imagery. I will also be critically analysing the selected mental skills for the program in this essay. Psychological skills training or PST is the use of organised practice of psychological skills to improve performance, and improve general happiness in their physical activity (Weinberg and Gould, 2011). Gill (2000) provides a straightforward description of PST when he states that psychological skill training is a combination of methods which have been chosen for the purpose of achieving psychological skill needs. An individual may at times face new challenges or barriers in sport which repeatedly test the limits of their psychological skills and may even produce negative effects to their game (Weinberg and Gould, 2011). Psychological skills training was developed to help the athlete or participant to overcome these problems and set them back on the successful path of achieving the goals set for them. There is no individual package for Psychological Skills Training, each stage or element must be sport specific or identifiable to the individual and must be based upon the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s psychological state. When attempting to put together a successful (PST) program it is important that you are able to recognize the difference between (PST) methods and (PST) skills. (PST) methods can be usually used as a tool to aid improving the (PST) skill and (PST) skills are the psychological attributes in which development is required e.g. concentration (Calmels et al, 2003). To maximise the effectiveness of your Psychological Skills Training program, Thelwell and Greenlees (2001) argue that a (PST) program will be more effective if there are a few mental skills employed instead of just one but they must be sport specific. Judging from the literature that has been published, it seems that the Soviet Union was the first nation to use mental skills training with their athletes and coaches way back in the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s (Williams Struab, 2006). This proves just how long Psychological skills training has been used in sport, although systematic contents did not emerge until the early 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s when it grew to become the major focus for practice and research within North America. A common mistake in which coaches and athletes make is the factors in a sporting situation, with an example being losing concentration when attempting to take a penalty kick in football cannot simply be rectified by practising penalty kicks on a regular basis but more importantly by improving ones psychological skill as it is the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of mental skills which usually lead to the penalty miss (Weinberg Gould, 2007). A perfect example of a footballer who is known for their goal scoring ability and dead ball situations is Lionel Messi. The link below shows Messi miss a penalty at a time where he had been a run of two attempts missed attempts in his previous matches. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MnuI3kYTyfc The psychological skills program in this essay will be centred on a 23 year old male professional footballer plying his trade in championship, who for the purpose of this essay will be referred to as Jerome. In the league in which he plays he is one of the deadliest strikers, who is used to putting the ball in the back of the net both in open play and in set pieces i.e penalties and free kicks which when awarded he is first in line to take. This being said he has not been successful in his last 4 penalty attempt which is very unfamiliar for a player of his track record. The player has confessed that he has lost confidence in his penalty taking abilities due to missing his last 4 attempts and is considering stepping down from his penalty taking responsibilities in the team. After much thought and analysis of the scenario, the psychological methods in which I have chosen for his personal skills training are imagery and self-talk as I believe these methods are most beneficial and effect ive in restoring the young footballerÃ¢â¬â¢s confidence in his penalty taking ability. The application of these chosen methods within his psychological skills training program will allow him to visualise himself scoring a penalty using imagery whilst using positive self-talk to assure himself that he can score as he walks up to take the penalty kick. Both self-talk and imagery are skills so to increase the chances of success for Jerome they must be practiced. One way in which Jerome could practise imagery could be a couple hours or match day morning before a game, he could spend a few minutes of his time picturing himself walking unto the football pitch, going through his pre-game warm up routine, in game situations i.e penalty kick, free kicks etc. Vealey and Greenleaf (2006) believe that this imagery method should enable the athlete to identify and understand particular behaviours and thoughts that they can actively engage in to begin to move toward their ideal self-image.Ã¢â¬â¢ Weinberg Gould (2003) state that In order to maximise the effectiveness of the exercise an athlete must assimilate all the various senses which are related to their experience. So Therefore it is important that Jerome try to imagine things that make him feel as though he is going through the experience e.g the feel of the grass on his boots, the feel of the ball on his feet, the noise from the crowd and generally anything which is familiar to him when heÃ¢â¬â¢s on the field of play. This type of imagery is described as Ã¢â¬Å"event-dayÃ¢â¬ imagery. Vealey Greenleaf (2006) describes imagery as the process in which an individual creates or recreates an experience in the mind. These images will usually be of times of previous experiences or a completely made up scenario where the performer is successful in completing challenges or performing physical skills on the pitch (Weinberg and Gould, 2011). The use and effectiveness of imagery is maximised when the focus is placed on the individual using imagery to control his or her emotions. It is not uncommon to see an athlete freeze up or even at times lose control of their emotions. For the purpose of eliminate this issue, the athlete when using imagery must recreate or imagine a possible or previous negative experience for him or herself, once they have done this they must then remove that particular image from their mind and imagine the same situation but in a positive manner or outcome. By the use of imagery our young footballer Jerome will be able to imagine/ recreate a negative e xperience taking a penalty and then replace that experience with the desired outcome of him scoring the penalty kick, which may help greatly reduce the chances of Jerome Ã¢â¬ËchokingÃ¢â¬â¢ or minimising his performance due to prying emotions. Munroe et al (2000) contends that imagery can also be used to augment oneÃ¢â¬â¢s sport skills, strategies, confidence and also maximise the chances of achieving set goals. Jerome could use this to rectify any errors or weaknesses within his play, which in turn will help him increase his confidence. Bandura (1986) indicated that experiences originating from oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own imagination are an excellent source of situation specific self-confidence /self-efficacy. Imagery can be separated into two forms with these two training methods being either internal i.e. creating images in the mind or they can be external i.e. observing visual images (Weinberg and Gould, 2011). Research by Callow and Hardy (19972001) suggests that the use of external imagery could be better suited for the programme due to the athleteÃ¢â¬â¢s level of performance. This being said I will be focusing more on the internal training methods. One of the limitations of imagery is that some athleteÃ¢â¬â¢s do not have a great deal of imagery to begin with and as a coach it is pretty much impossible measure an athleteÃ¢â¬â¢s level of imagery as it is a mental process which cannot be observed. Morris et al (2005) expresses his belief in imagery stating that imagery is one of the most commonly used method of mental training for athletes. Imagery is an integral part of many mental skills programs as it offers vast range applicability with imagery also being applicable in a wide range of sporting experiences. Moritz et al (1996) states how the correct use use of imagery can help improve confidence through rehearsing mental images. Imagery can also be used by a number of different individuals ranging from elites or professionals and novices or amateurs. Imagery also can be built into and around an athleteÃ¢â¬â¢s daily routine or workday in order to suit the individual needs of the athlete. This being said it is important that the athlete be in a good state mentally before beginning the process of imagery. Gregg, Hall and Hanton (2004) explains that before an athlete attempts or begins any imagery sessions it is important that he or she be in a good frame of mind and must als o be in the right mood as this better prepares them for the sessions maximising the chances of success in the process. . Self-talk is another psychological skills training technique that will be assimilated into JeromeÃ¢â¬â¢s (PST) program. Hackfort Schwenkmezger (1993) define Self talk as the verbal dialogue in which an athlete can not only understand their perceptions and feelings but also evaluate how their feeling and then give themselves instructions or reinforcement. Self talk can be used both in a sporting environments e.g. the changing rooms, during competition before competition, after competition and in a non-sporting environments e.g. at home or a quiet/peaceful place. Landin and Herbert (1999) states that self talk can be separated into three different categories which are positive i.e. motivational, negative and instructional. Self talk can be separated into three different categories positive i.e. motivational, negative and instructional. Conventionally positive self talk is used to increase an athleteÃ¢â¬â¢s endeavour and to promote a positive attitude although positive self talk does not implement any sport specific target or task e.g. (a golf player can say to himself Ã¢â¬Å"im going to sink this puttÃ¢â¬ ). Instructional self talk can be used in mental skills training to assist in the maintenance of an athleteÃ¢â¬â¢s focus on task associated areas of their own performance with the desired outcome being that they augment the execution of a skill e.g. (Ã¢â¬Å"a footballer could say to himself to self to focus on his technique when striking the ballÃ¢â¬ ). The third and final category is negative self talk and this can be described as when an athlete is over critical of them self which can decrease the athleteÃ¢â¬â¢s chances of achieving their goals, this can also lead to anxiety which can also bring an athleteÃ¢â¬â¢s performance down. A good example of negative self talk could be a footballer telling them self that their passing is below par or they do not have the ability to compete with the opposition etc. one limitation of self talk is that if an athlete does not fully focused they may become distracted as they could find themselves confused as their overloaded with stimuli. Self talk used correctly can be useful in a number of different tasks in sport, this being said it is important that the practitioner evaluate what would be the most suitable type of self talk for the selected task which will then maximise the chance of future performance augmentation for an athlete. Mikes (1987) suggests that there are six rules which can aid an athlete with performance implementation, these are as follows: First person should be used and present tense Keep phrases as short as possible and be specific The phrases should be constructive and positive Speak to yourself in a kind manner Phrases should be meaningful Phrases should be repeated frequently In consideration of all the bullet points stated there are also a number of other strategies which have been found to improve self-talk. Changing negative self-talk and thought stopping are some of the most successful strategies used in psychology in sport. The term Thought stopping describes the way in which an individual or disregards or deals with negative thoughts before they begin corrupt the mind-set of the individual which whether youÃ¢â¬â¢re an athlete or amateur could lead to a negative impact on performance. The term Changing negative self-talk to positive self-talk can be described as when an individual is coping with negative thoughts and then transforms them into positive self-talk which could change the mind frame of the individual as the athlete or amateur will be more than likely more motivated. Jerome could use this particular mental skills method of positive self talk before attempting to take a penalty or free kick simply telling saying Ã¢â¬Å"I will scoreÃ¢â¬ . JeromeÃ¢â¬â¢s psychological skills training program (PST) will be conducted in phases as he attempts to improve his confidence in his penalty taking.as previously stated the program will be based on the two mental skills training methods of imagery and self-talk. This program should be used and repeated for over 6 weeks as anything less could cause the effects of the skills training to be temporary. Phase 1 (Night prior to match)Ã Picture your customary match day routine as detailed as possible then once the match has ended picture yourself falling asleep. Phase 2 (Night prior to match) Picture yourself before kick-off walking with your teammates through the tunnel, the cheers of the crowd, while also trying to imagine or recreate how that makes you feel, then end the image with you falling asleep. Phase 3 (Training) Picture you on the pitch stepping up to take a penalty kick saying to yourself repeatedly Ã¢â¬Å"I will scoreÃ¢â¬ . Phase 4 (Night prior to match) Picture yourself going through your customary match day routine, then imagine as detailed as possible yourself in a game situation just about to step up to take a penalty telling yourself obscurely Ã¢â¬Å"I will scoreÃ¢â¬ you should then imagine yourself scoring the penalty and celebrating moving on to your customary post match routine then ending the image with you falling asleep. Phase 5 (Match) Prior to taking a penalty you should use imagery to picture yourself scoring and then use self talk saying to yourself obscurely and repeatedly Ã¢â¬Å"I will scoreÃ¢â¬ . After analysing the current evidence and research in imagery and self talk it is safe to say that both are effective practices. The psychological skills training program provided will allow for the chosen athlete to improve his confidence in his penalty taking ability if both the practitioner conducts the program correctly and the athlete participates in the program willingly and in the right frame of minds. Jerome should be able to improve his confidence with regard to his penalty taking ability. The development of Strong mental skills may help Jerome to perform at his maximum level and may also lead to him becoming a more consistent performer. Although, a number of limitations have been recognized that could affect the success of these types of programs. The person delivering the programme plays a key role in the success of the program as the person delivering the programme has to be able to correctly impart to the player the basics behind the use of these methods as lack of knowle dge of the methods could have a negative effect in the players motivation as they might start to lose faith in the methods. This could possibly lead to a decrease in effort from Jerome as motivation could play a key role in him being able to work on and maintain his ability to produce mental images. Another limitation that can affect the success of the program is the time spent on it as it is important that the athlete spend almost as much time practicing these skills as they do practicing their physical skills. A common mistake made in the application of these programmes is that the practitioner or athlete does not keep to the recommended time period which in order to augment and maintain not only their mental stability but also their confidence in these methods should be recurrently practiced throughout the football season. Reference list Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and actions: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Calmels, C. et al. (2003) Competitive strategies among elite female gymnasts: An exploration of the relative influence of psychological skills training and natural learning experiences. International Journal of Sport Exercise Psychology. Callow, N. Hardy, L. (2001). Types of Imagery with Sport Confidence in Netball Players of Varying Skill Levels.Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. 13 (1), p1-17. Gregg, M. Hall, C., Hanton, S. (2004). Perceived effectiveness of mental imagery. Manuscript submitted for publication. Gill, D. (2000) Psychological Dynamics of Sport and Exercise, 2nd edition, Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics. Hackfort, D., Schwenkmezger, P. (1993) Anxiety. In R. N. Singer, M. Murphy, L. K. Tenant (Eds.), Handbook of research in sport psychology. New York: Macmillan. Moritz, S. Hall, C. Martin, K. Vadocz, E. (1996). What are confident athletes imaging?: An Examination of Image Content. The Sports Psychologist. 10 (1), p171-179. Mikes, J. (1987). Basketball fundamentals: A complete mental training guide. Champaign, IL: Leisure Press. Munroe, K. J., Giacobbi, P., Hall, C. R., Weinberg, R. S. (2000). The 4 WÃ¢â¬â¢s of imagery use: Where, when, why and what. The Sport Psychologist, 14 Landin, D., Hebert, E. P. (1999). The influence of self-talk on the performance of skilled female tennis players. Journal ofApplied Sport Psychology, 11, 263Ã¢â¬â282. Thelwell, R.C. and Greenlees, I.A. (2001) The effects of a mental skills training package on gymnasium triathlon performance. The Sports Psychologist, Vealey, R. S., Greenleaf, C. A. (2006). Seeing is believing: Understanding and using imagery in sport. In J. M. Williams (Ed.), Applied sport psychology: Personal growth to peak performance 5th ed. (pp. 285-305). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing. Weinberg, R. and Gould, D. (2003). Foundations of sport exercise psychology (3rd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Weinberg, R and Gould, D (2007). Foundations of Sport and Exercise Psychology.. Champaigne, IL: Human Kinetics. Weinberg, R, and Gould, D (2011). Foundations of sport and exercise psychology. 5th ed. Leeds: Human Kinetics. p.247-362. Williams, J.M., Straub, W.F. (2006). Sport Psychology: Past, present, future. In J.M. Wiliams (Ed.), Applied Sport Psychology: Personal growth to peak performance (5th ed). Boston: McGraw-Hill
Thursday, September 19, 2019
The Theme of Love in Poetry For this essay I am going to read and analyse three poems on the theme of love: "Cousin Kate" by Christina Rossetti, "Goodbye" by Anna Landucci, and "The Library of Love" by John Citizen. The three poems are set in different times and show the difference of attitude of love between time periods. In Victorian time the topic of love was very private and was not shown in public. Today's' society is totally different where people will show their love to one another anywhere and freely talk about it to their friends. Although love in society has changed, love has always been discussed in arts such as literature and poems emphasising how important love is to mankind. "Cousin Kate" by Christina Rossetti. This poem is the oldest of the three being discussed. It was written in 1862. The poem is about a poor cottage maiden who was in love with the local Lord, became pregnant to him but was cast aside when he married her cousin Kate instead. Her love for the Lord was full of joy at first but when he rejected her all sorts of emotions were released. Hurt, anger, jealousy, regret, shame, and finally pride are all expressed in this poem. The whole poem is written as a reflection of the girl's life. Love changed her life completely. As it was written in 1862 it had more of an effect on her life than if the same thing happened today. She would have been sneered upon for having had sex outside marriage and been sure that no other man would marry her. The girl in the poem sees how she was influenced by the Lord's power. She saw him as a very special man as in, "Why did a Great Lord find me out?" The word "great" suggests she saw him as a superior person. If he were a commoner without the Lord's wealth and power I think the circumstances would have been different. As the poem goes on it shows that she had become aware of the fact that the Lord took advantage of her. This can be shown in, ""He lured me to his palace home." The verb "lured" suggests she was led into a trap like an animal and "palace home" indicates the seduction of wealth again. The use of alliteration and repetition in the text, "To lead a shameless, shameful life," emphasises that the Lord gets away with a lot because of his sex, wealth and power. The girl realises her mistakes. She realises that the Lord was just using her and had no permanent relationship on his mind.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
1. Name of the system HRMIS is stands for Human Resources Management Information System. 2. Summary of the system to be developed HRMIS is system that will be developing to assist an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s record management in Human Resources Department and Finance Department. This system will help both department to collaborate in the making of finalize report which it been demand in the end of the month or year. This system will retrieve all the activity that contains of employee activities either active or non-active records such as for HR Department they consists a report attendance for KPI (key performance indicator), leave, mc, pensionÃ¢â¬â¢s information and for Finance Department information like staffingÃ¢â¬â¢s salary. So, using this system where it is built using an intranet where staff from this two department can attach and update the information at the metadata immediately whereby it making the information currency. Besides that, they can monitor all the activities that related to the employee among themselves. This system contains a metadata that can be a key to the employee. So the inf...
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
The issue of religious freedom from a Catholic viewpoint has always been controversial, since Catholicism is not only seen as a religion, in the historical sense, but also a great force in the political structure in the past. Dignitatis Humanae came about when the Vatican Council II faced conflicts on what model of religious freedom was to be put before the Council. Traditionalists called for religious tolerance but claimed that an abstract right to religious liberty was relativistic or simply some aspects of religious liberty are dependent on different factors and cannot attain a definite standpoint.The declaration was largely drawn from the first draft Ã¢â¬Å"UnityÃ¢â¬ by Cardinal Bea, the draft was part of the schema on ecumenism. These conflicts were encountered during the first session of the council. On the second session of the Council, conflict over a possible declaration on religious freedom continued. Materials used by various bishops were mainly from John Courtney Murra yÃ¢â¬â¢s draft. The conflict moved from arguments over the content to whether it would be voted on before the Council ends. During the third session, Declaration on Religious Liberty was approved by Theological Commission.There was an appeal that certain voting be held on the third session but the Pope decided that it be moved to the next session. The final vote was taken and promulgated on the fourth session. Many issues were raised before the voting but the DeclarationÃ¢â¬â¢s statement of development was a key issue. There were attempts to delay the voting again, arguing that support for the current text was uncertain. The declaration was approved on October 25, 1965 with only minor amendments and was promulgated December 7 of the same year.Religious freedom is vital to manÃ¢â¬â¢s life, it is not just for Catholics but for all. Dignitatis Humanae is a declaration which focuses on how religious can be attained in a secular world. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a declaration on how different sec tors such as the government, the Church, and even individuals should interact, not just to achieve order but to elevate human dignity. In elevating human dignity, universal justice is not difficult to attain. The heart of Dignitatis Humanae is religious freedom based on human dignity through reason and divine revelation.Human dignity here means manÃ¢â¬â¢s very value, his nature and right to reason and his free will. Human dignity entails, since men are impelled by nature and bound by moral obligations, the search for truth, religious truth in particular. Once truth is known, man is to adhere to it and order his life in accord to its demands. The declaration points out however, that men cannot do these obligations unless they enjoy immunity from external coercion and psychological freedom. Religious freedom as a right has its foundations not in the subjective or relativistic disposition but in manÃ¢â¬â¢s very nature.The right to immunity does not only apply to those who adhere to the truth but even to those who do not live up to their obligation to seek for the truth, provided that just public order be observed. The declaration states that in all his activity, a man is bound to follow his conscience in order that he may come to God, and it follows that he is not to be forced to act against his conscience nor restrained from acting according to his conscience, especially when it comes to religious matters. The reason for this is that the exercise of religion consists in internal, voluntary, and free acts where man sets his life toward God.Going to the social nature of man, the declaration states that it is required that he should give external expression to his internal acts of religion: that he should profess his religion in community. Injury, as the declaration puts it, is done to the human person and to the order established by God for human life, if the free exercise of religion is denied in society, provided just order is observed. The role of the famil y, since it is a society in its own original right, has the right to freely live its own domestic religious life under the guidance of parents.Parents are given the right to determine the kind of religious education their children are to receive. As for the government, it must recognize the right of parents to make a free choice of schools and of other means of education. The rights of parents are simply violated if their children are forced to attend instructions which are not in agreement with their religious beliefs. The government should also help create conditions favorable to the fostering of religious life, to enable people to exercise their religious rights and duties, and also that the society may profit by the moral qualities of justice and peace.The care of the right to religious freedom (devolves) upon the whole citizenry, upon social groups, upon government, and upon the Church and other religious communities. Lastly, the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s role is to see to it that eq uality of citizens before the law is not violated. Clearly, a wrong is committed when government imposes upon its people, by force or fear or other means. The declaration further states that all the more is it a violation of the will of God and the sacred rights of the person and the family of nations when force is brought to bear in any way in order to destroy religion.The right to religious freedom and its practice is subject to certain regulatory norms. In the use of all freedoms, the moral principle of both personal and social responsibility must be observed. In the exercise of their rights, individual men and social groups are bound by the moral law to have respect for the rights of others and for their own duties. In attaining religious freedom in the society, men are to deal with their fellows in justice and civility. Dignitatis Humanae is one way of proving that Catholicism is not a religion of coercion but a religion of freedom and human dignity.One of the major tenets of C atholic doctrine that manÃ¢â¬â¢s response to God in faith must be out of freedom or simply putting it, embracing the Christian faith is not be forced against manÃ¢â¬â¢s will. The means of attaining religious freedom or the very expression of it should be an imitation of how Christ taught by word and example. Christ converted men to faith not through coercion but by the power of evangelization. Christ, in His time also acknowledged the power of government and its rights. The Church is following the way of Christ in faithfulness to the truth of the Gospel.Dignitatis Humanae should serve as a guide to the Catholic laity especially in its mission of evangelization, proclaiming the Gospel and the faith itself should not be imposed to non-Catholics or non-Christians. As the declaration states, Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ ¦ where the principle of religious freedom is not only proclaimed in words or simply incorporated in law but also given sincere and practical application, there the Church succeeds in achieving a stable situation of right as well as of fact and the independence which is necessary for the fulfillment of her divine mission. Ã¢â¬â¢
Monday, September 16, 2019
On February 9, 1895, in Holyoke, Massachusetts, William G. Morgan, a YMCA P.E. director, made a game called Mignonette as a fun game to pass time by , to be mostly be played inside but could be played outside, by any number of players. The game took some of its characteristics from tennis and handball. Another indoor sport, basketball was becoming popular in the area due to the fact that it had been invented just ten mile away for Springfield Massachusetts, four years before volleyball was. Mintonette was designed to be an indoor sport, less rough than basketball, for older members of the YMCA, while still requiring the players to at least have some type of athleticism. Volleyball is a sport that is becoming more and more popular as the days go on. Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net. Each team tries to score points by grounding a ball on the other teamÃ¢â¬â¢s court under organized rules William Morgan Created. There are many differen t achievements and history made from the creation of volleyball until now. William Morgan was born in the state of New York and studied at Springfield College in Massachusetts. While attending Springfield, Morgan met James Naismith who invented basketball in 1891. Morgan was motivated by NaismithÃ¢â¬â¢s game of basketball designed for younger students to invent a game for the older members of the YMCA. William MorganÃ¢â¬â¢s basis for the new game of Volleyball was the then popular and similar German game of Faustball and a few other sports including, tennis, basketball, baseball and handball. William Morgan graduated high school from Northfield Mount Hermon School and moved on to hen attended the YMCA International Training School; now known as Springfield College in Massachusetts with James Naismith, the inventor of basketball. Morgan and Naismith wanted careers in Physical Education at the YMCA. Morgan spent one year working prior to graduating from Springfield College in Auburn, Maine, at the YMCA. During the summer of 1895, Morgan moved to Holyoke, Massachusetts, where he still to worked for the YMCA as the Director of Physical Education. Since Morgan was the Director he was allowed to devise workout plans and teach sports in depth to the young male adults. February 9 1895, the first volleyball game, originally called Ã¢â¬Å"MintonetteÃ¢â¬ , was played in Holyoke Massachusetts at a YMCA. William Morgan saw basketball as extremely physically demanding, because you had to constantly run up and down the court. He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t think that his was something that older, non-athletic adults, and businessmen, werenÃ¢â¬â¢t in good enough shape to do. Seeing this, he began to create a game with similar objectives to basketball, but for people who werenÃ¢â¬â¢t in as good of shape, such as a group of middle-aged businessmen who were members at his YMCA. He also borrowed ideas from a few different sports, such as tennis, handball, baseball, and badminton to make volleyball. He used the inside of a basketball as the first volleyball. In the original rules, the net would be 6 ft. 6 inches, this was because he wanted it a little taller than most of the men who would be playing it. It would have a court that was 25 ft. By 50 ft., so it could easil y be played in different YMCAs. It had two teams of any number of players, because he wanted it to accommodate differing sized groups. Each match consisted of nine innings. Each team could serve three times per inning. There was no limit to the number of times each team could contact a ball before volleying it back to the other team. Each server was allowed two tries to get the ball over the net. A point would be awarded to the other team if the ball hit the net, except in the case of a faulty first serve, if the ball failed to be served back to the other side before hitting the ground; or if the ball was hit outside of the court by the team that had just returned it over the net. Mintonette was first played at his YMCA and the rules were tweaked over the course of a little under a year until 1896 when Morgan wrote down the Ã¢â¬Å"finalÃ¢â¬ rules and submitted them for review at a YMCA Physical DirectorÃ¢â¬â¢s Conference. At that same conference at the International YMCA Traini ng School, the first exhibition game was played between different YMCA groups. One of the spectators of this exhibition match, Dr. Alfred T. Halstead suggested to Morgan that a better name for the sport than Mintonette would be Ã¢â¬Å"Volley BallÃ¢â¬ . Volleyball was originally two words until 1952, when it was officially changed to one word because the game primarily consisted of volleying a ball back and forth. Morgan liked the new name and so re-named the sport. Volleyball received an unexpected boost with the outbreak of WWI. The YMCA established a War Office, which decided to include volleyball in the recreation and education program forÃ American armed forces at home and abroad. Thousands of balls, nets, and rulebooks were distributed to U.S. troops. By the end of the war, the game had traveled with the army to France, Italy, and Egypt. It was especially well received in Eastern European countries where long, harsh winters made indoor sports attractive. Russians discovered volleyball in the early 1920s when the game was played at YMCAs in the new Soviet Union. Within a few years, Russians had claimed the sport as their own. In 1927, Soviet officials ejected the YMCA as a Ã¢â¬Å"capitalistic, bourgeois, and religiousÃ¢â¬ organization, but volleyball stayed. The sport became so popular in the Soviet Union that within a decade over 400,000 people played the game. The USSR held the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s first national volleyball championship. O ne match was played on the stage of the Bolshoi Theater. World War II continued the global spread of volleyball. The Federation International de Volleyball says Ã¢â¬Å"everywhere, from the South Pacific to the Finnish front, volleyball drew crowds among troops engaged in the Second World War.Ã¢â¬ The sport was especially well-adapted to the limited space on aircraft carriers. In the 1920s and 1930s, women began to play the game. Russia won the first world championship for women held in Moscow in 1952. The rapid growth of CaliforniaÃ¢â¬â¢s population after WWII created another venue for and variant of the game beach volleyball, it received official status in 1986. Today volleyball is one of the most popular team sports in the world and is still growing, though obviously professionally speaking; itÃ¢â¬â¢s still not as popular as sports such as association football, Baseball, Basketball, American Football, or the like. The Federation International de Volleyball is saying that they believe is currently the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most played team sport. Volleyball first reached Asia in 1908 when a Springfield College graduate demonstrated the game at the YMCA in Tokyo. In 1910, two representatives of the Y brought the game to China, and the YMCA director in Manila introduced it to the Philippines. William Morgan, the Holyoke inventor of the game, died in 1942 at the age of 68. If he would have lived just a little bit longer he would have got to see the creation of an international volleyball federation in Paris. In 1964, the International Olympic Committee recognized volleyball as an official Olympic sport. Although it is not as popular in the United St ates as basketball but volleyball was played all over the world. In 1946 A study of recreation in the United States showed that volleyball was ranked fifth among team sports being promoted and organized. In 1947, the Federation Internationale De Volley-Ball was founded in Paris. In 1948, the first two-man beach tournament was held. In 1949, the first World Championships were held in Prague, Czechoslovakia. In 1949 USVBA added a collegiate division, for competitive college teams. For the first ten years collegiate competition was sparse. Teams formed only through the efforts of interested students and instructors. Many teams ended when the interested people left the college. Competitive teams were not in one place. In 1951 Volleyball was played by over 50 million people each year in over 60 countries. In 1955 Ã¢â¬â Pan American Games included volleyball. In 1957 The International Olympic Committee stated that volleyball was an Olympic team sport that would be in the 1964 Olympic Games. In 1959 the International University Sports Federatio n held the first University Games in Turin, Italy. Volleyball was one of the eight competitions held. In 1960 Seven Midwestern colleges created the Midwest Intercollegiate Volleyball Association. In 964 Southern California Intercollegiate Volleyball Association was formed in California. In the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s new techniques added to the game included, the soft spike, forearm pass, blocking across the net, and defensive diving and rolling. In 1964, Volleyball was introduced to the Olympic Games in Tokyo. The Japanese volleyball used in the 1964 Olympics, was made up of a rubber carcass with leather paneling. The balls in the competitions today look pretty much the same. In 1965, the California Beach Volleyball Association was formed. 1968 National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics made volleyball their fifteenth competitive sport. In 1969 The Executive Committee of the NCAA proposed addition of volleyball to its program. In 1983, the Association of Volleyball Professionals was formed. In 1984, the US won their first medals at the Olympics in Los Angeles. The Men won the Gold, and the Women the Silver. In 1986, the WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Professional Volleyball Association was for med. These are just few accomplishments and impacts volleyball had. Volleyball is beginning to become one of Americas, and the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s elite and popular sports. Ironically Basketball and Volleyball were created no more than 30 minutes apart and in the same time period. Today volleyball is one of the most popular team sports in the world and is still growing, though obviously professionallyÃ speaking; itÃ¢â¬â¢s still not as popular as sports such as association football, Baseball, Basketball, American Football, or the like. However, the Federation International de Volleyball claims that it is currently the world have most played team sport. Volleyball is growing and will always continue to do so. Bibliography Mass Moments, . Ã¢â¬Å"Holyoke Man Creates volleyball.Ã¢â¬ www.masmoments.org. Mass Moments.org. Web. 20 Feb 2014. . Today I found out, . Ã¢â¬Å"February 9th: William G. Morgan Invents a Game Called Mintonette that is Better Known Today as Volleyball.Ã¢â¬ www.todayifoundout.com. TodaIfoundout.com. Web. 20 Feb 2014. . History of volleyball, . Ã¢â¬Å"History of volleyball.Ã¢â¬ Vball.com. N.p.. Web. 20 Feb 2014.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Set In Sweet Water, In the western plains, where Captain Forrester could comfortably transport Ã¢â¬Å"friends from Omaha or Denver over from the station in his democrat wagonÃ¢â¬ (5) to his stately home, a story unfolds that pits two worlds against each otherÃ¢â¬âthat of an Ideal past and that of the grim present. The narrator assumes the perspective of a third person omniscient, able to provide Insight Into characters' thoughts and motivations, and centers the novel on Marina Forrester and the men who surround her.Yet what seems to Interest Catcher irately in this work is the conflict between two generations of pioneer men in the West and resulting redefinition of manhood during the lamina period between the late 1 9th and early 20th centuries. Largely, Nile Herbert fascination with Marina Forrester and the men whom she attracts drives the novel, for Nile observes Marina through the yearsÃ¢â¬âwith an interest that mirrors that of Wintergreen in Henry Sesame's Daisy Miller. Despite their age difference (he is 12 years old when he first meets Mrs..Forrester), Nile becomes enthralled with Marina as an image of Victorian mysticism during his youth. She becomes an Ã¢â¬Å"angel of the house,Ã¢â¬ happily greeting visitors in a disheveled dressing gown, with her hair partially coiffed, or toting baskets of freshly baked cookies to the neighborhood boys playing near the stream on the Forrester grounds. While Nile is still a boy, the Captain assumes the role of a great protector who chooses not to drain his fields for more productive land, but rather magnanimously allows the creek to run through his pasture, because he can afford to and because he admires the beauty of the place.This landscape becomes hemolytic, for when the Captain becomes ill and eventually dies, many changes take place at the homestead. For Catcher, the noble pioneer embodied by the Captain, who appreciates nature and values its beauty, finds replacement in the selfish modern man of Ivy P eters, who sees nature only In terms of resources waiting to be stripped and profits to be made. When Captain Forester's health weakens, Ivy Peters moves onto Forester's land and starts to assume his role as the dominant male In the household, replacing the grand, strong figure of the older railroad man.Ivy makes the session to drain the Forrester' meadowland, Instead planting wheat that will then be harvested and cut down. Catcher writes: Ã¢â¬Å"All the way from Missouri to the mountains this generation of shrewd, young men, trained to petty economies by hard times, would do exactly what Peters had done when he drained the Forrester marshÃ¢â¬ (90). Here, Ivy acts as a symbol of a new generation of ruthless Ã¢â¬Å"shrewd young menÃ¢â¬ who ravage the landscape and strip the feminizes earth of her resources.Yet Ivy will not only dominate the land; the beautiful woman, like the beautiful land, also Decodes a target AT exploration. Marlin Forrester Decodes Immediately Keenan to a bird when Nile returns after being away for two years from the Forrester and the town in which they live. When Nile first greets Marina, he does so by clasping her in his arms while she lay on a hammock, Ã¢â¬Å"like a bird caught in a netÃ¢â¬ (92).This image of a bird becomes instrumental in Marina's relationship to Ivy; if Marina is the bird, then is the cruel male who will mutilate her and show her his dominance increasingly. That Catcher would use this image of a bird in reference to Marina, after roving her reader with a dramatic scene of cruelty and abuse when Peters uses a tool from a taxidermy kit to slice the eyes of a female woodpecker he has captured in his hands, while calling her Ã¢â¬Å"Miss Female,Ã¢â¬ stands as something more than coincidence.When the reader examines Ivy's treatment of Mrs.. Forrester, one sees that she becomes more and more dependent on him and therefore must tolerate his disrespectful behavior. Ã¢â¬Å"Poison IvyÃ¢â¬ will become the scourge t hat ravages the Ã¢â¬Å"forestÃ¢â¬ found in Marina Forrest(ere), subtly spreading and taking over her land. A casting image of Marina emerges from the story she tells about how she and Captain Forrester became married.When Marina describes the scene in which she, crippled with two broken legs, is carried out of the ravine by men who took alternate turns in bearing her weight, an image of Captain Forrester holding the broken body of his wife reveals the Captain's comfort in taking care of a dependent woman. Marina's dependence does not threaten the Captain but draws them together. Marina submits to Captain Forrester and trusts that he will take care of her, for he represents the idealized image of masculinity that countered the Victorian Ã¢â¬Å"angel of the houseÃ¢â¬ as the strong, dominant provider.After her husband's death, which leaves her disoriented like the blinded bird, without the Captain to carry her or give her a strong sense of noble masculinity from which to contrast herself, she must redefine her feminine female subject position against a new kind of male. Just as the new, modern male will exploit land and women, so will Marina learn to use her beauty as a commodity, in order to gain financial security within an increasingly commercialism world of men.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
Basketball was invented in December 1891 by the Canadian clergyman, educator, and physician James Naismith. Naismith introduced the game when we was an instructor at the Young MenÃ¢â¬â¢s Christian Association Training School (now Springfield College) in Springfield, Massachusetts. At the request of his superior, Dr. Luther H. Gulick, he organized a vigorous recreation suitable for indoor winter play. The game involved elements of American football, soccer, and hockey, and the first ball used was a soccer ball. Teams had nine players, and the goals were wooden peach baskets affixed to the walls. By 1897-1898, teams of five became standard. The game rapidly spread nationwide and to Canada and other parts of the world, played by both women and men; it also became a popular informal outdoor game. U. S. servicemen in World War II (1939-1945) popularized the sport in many other countries. A number of U. S. colleges adopted the game between about 1893 and 1895. In 1934 the first college games were staged in New York CityÃ¢â¬â¢s Madison Square Garden, and college basketball began to attract heightened interest. By the 1950s basketball had become a major college sport, thus paving the way for a growth of interest in professional basketball. The first pro league, the National Basketball League, was formed in 1898 to protect players from exploitation and to promote a less rough game. This league only lasted five years before disbanding; its demise spawned a number of loosely organized leagues throughout the northeastern United States. One of the first and greatest pro teams was the Original Celtics, organized about 1915 in New York City. They played as many as 150 games a season and dominated basketball until 1936. The Harlem Globetrotters, founded in 1927, a notable exhibition team, specializes in amusing court antics and expert ball handling. In 1949 two subsequent professional leagues, the National Basketball League (formed in 1937) and the Basketball Association of America (1946) merged to create the National Basketball Association (NBA). The Boston Celtics, led by their center Bill Russell, dominated the NBA from the late 1950s through the 1960s. By the 1960s, pro teams from coast to coast played before crowds of many millions annually. Wilt Chamberlain, a center for the Los Angeles Lakers, was another leading player during the era, and his battles with Russell were eagerly anticipated. Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, also a center, came to prominence during the 1970s. Jabbar perfected his famed Ã¢â¬Å"sky hookÃ¢â¬ shot while playing for the Los Angeles Lakers and dominated the opposition. The NBA suffered a drop in popularity during the late 1970s, but was resuscitated, principally through the growing popularity of its most prominent players. Larry Bird of the Boston Celtics, and Magic Johnson of the Los Angeles Lakers are credited with injecting excitement into the league in the 1980s through their superior skills and decade-long rivalry. During the late 1980s Michael Jordan of the Chicago Bulls rose to stardom and helped the Bulls dominate the NBA during the early 1990s. A new generation of basketball stars, including Shaquille OÃ¢â¬â¢Neal of the Orlando Magic and Larry Johnson of the Charlotte Hornets, have sustained the NBAÃ¢â¬â¢s growth in popularity. In 1959 a Basketball Hall of Fame was founded in Springfield, Massachusetts. Its rosters include the names of great players, coaches, referees, and people who have contributed significantly to the development of the game.
Friday, September 13, 2019
Mississippi Masala - Movie Review Example Conflicts between the races arise mainly due to ignorance, prejudice and stereotyping which leads to negative ideas and attitudes arising among the groups when relating to each other. Economic pressures and increasing competition for limited numbers of jobs, housing and schools have forced the races into conflict. Added to economic pressures are social conflicts arising from differences in religion, traditional values and a history of oppression of one race by another in different situations. The fear of the unknown and unfamiliar leads to avoidance, hostility, overt violence and a desire to destroy whatever is different from oneself. The film Ã¢â¬ËMississippi MasalaÃ¢â¬â¢ explores the serious theme of interracial conflict and possible resolutions to these conflicts. In spite of the topic, it is a spicy, romantic, passionate, irreverent, funny and upbeat film which avoids racial stereotyping and depicts its characters as natural and human. The film has a liberal viewpoint in that it shows Demetrius, the Black American Name 2 hero and Mina, the Asian heroine in a positive relationship with believable underpinnings.
Thursday, September 12, 2019
International Business Research Assignment - Case Study Example However, subsidies, grants and governmental support are not sustainable in the long run. This would only create distortions and would also increase the input costs of manufacturing like cost of power, gas etc. Dependence of an Industry on subsidies, grants and support would only make demand for more support. Globalization calls for augmented interdependence of countries because of their enlarged economic integration via foreign direct investment, joint ventures, trade, migration of immigrants and foreign investment, foreign aid, and international migration of people and ideas. With the eradication of quotas, now, the survival in the international trade markets for countries depends on using the benefits of propinquity from a marketing, design and production point of view and also with an ability to counter the highly volatile market demand. New News about globalization is that the comparative productivity, price, exchange rates, transportation costs and custom duties and or tariffs will continue to affect patterns of sourcing; a new set of factors related to the distribution of products plays an increasingly vital role. Globalization and free trade economy can be termed as synonyms. Globalization is much more than an monetary event. ... ut the limitations of quotas, consumers and manufacturers in one area of the world seek for consumers and manufacturers in another part of the world, and with the international division of labor, greater efficiency can be achieved in catering the market needs and demands. Having better access to overseas suppliers and more sourcing options, companies with established and pliant brands will be able to realize upside potential by taking advantage of outsourcing and partnership opportunities. The ongoing process of evolution in the industry will favor companies with strong brand equity, a loyal group of recurring customers and a proven record in innovation. The economic advantage of integration of free market economies has always been interpreted. Quantitative restrictions / quotas ended under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and World Trade Organization kicked in. Approximately over 150 countries are members of the WTO. Gains of WTO and end of quotas can be seen now because of various bilateral and or regional agreements. These agreements provide a free movement of capital and labor which ultimately promotes competitiveness. The most important result of trade and investment, however, is economic growth, which in turn leads to a better environment. That is true because, as incomes rise, the demand for improved environmental quality also rises. Numerous studies have confirmed that, in practice, trade and investment activities usually have a positive impact on the environment. Criticism on Globalization There are various thoughts on the bilateral and regional trade agreements. One thought views that in a multilateral regime, bilateral trade agreements create trade distortions. The level playing field as envisaged by the WTO is thus distorted. For
Wednesday, September 11, 2019
Analysis - Article Example While Coca Cola is the main product of the company, it produces a range of products that include but are not limited to Appletiser, Beat Soda, Cherry Vanilla, Coca Cola with Lemon, Diet Coke, Raspberry Coke, New Coke, Sprite, and Sarsi. The second of the 4 PÃ¢â¬â¢s i.e. the price of Coca Cola is only $2 per bottle that contains 2 liters of the drink that essentially means a dollar a liter. However, the 2-liter bottle is available on sale in certain places for only $.99. Coca Cola can be purchased from a variety of places ranging from petty tuck shops to large utility stores and gas stations, place being the third P of marketing. The fourth P i.e. promotion is the most important factor which Coca Cola uses to gain competitive advantage in the market. Coca Cola is promoted in exciting ways. For instance, if a consumer manages to show a winning cap to a shopkeeper from one of the bottles the consumer has drunk before, he/she is entitled to a new free bottle. Coca Cola also promotes it s product by getting the consumers free in the theme parks during the super bowl. The main product of Coca Cola is the soft-drink that is available in almost all countries around the globe at a very reasonable and affordable price. Coca Cola adopts creative and innovative strategies to promote its products as will be discussed shortly. The product is equally popular among people of all ages except for infants. The competitive advantage of Coca Cola is its innovation and corporate social responsibility. Coca Cola is undeniably the most popular and respectable brand that has gained global recognition since its inception in 1866. The unique marketing strategies of Coca Cola since the time of establishment of this company has left its competitors surprised. There has been a continuous modification in the brand positioning of Coca Cola and its packaging over the decades. Coca Cola has always aligned itself closely with innovation and consumer sophistication. Coca Cola always associates i tself with events of global significance specially sports that are watched all over the world in such creative ways as making songs. Factors commonly used in Coke branding include the feeling of happiness and unity that reflect in the songs and advertisements the company makes. The main themes of events that Coca Cola focuses on and associates with include but are not limited to the connection of people by family, sports, and culture etc. Coca Cola has its huge fan-following on social media websites like Facebook and Twitter where they watch Coke videos and comment. The senior vice president of Coke, Wendy Clark said, Ã¢â¬Å"having all those fans respond to Coke is meaningful because fans are twice as likely to consume and 10 times more likely to purchase than non-fansÃ¢â¬ (Siddiqui). Coca Cola also takes care of environment which is yet another way to brighten its image in the public eye. In fact, corporate social responsibility is what provides Coca Cola with competitive advant age. This can be assessed from the recent pledge made by Coca Cola to recycle the plastic bottles taken from the Olympics 2012 in London to produce 80 million new bottles of Coke within only a month and a half of the ceremonyÃ¢â¬â¢s end. This plan is hoped to accommodate about one-fifth of the total waste generated during the Olympics games. In addition to this, Coca Cola has introduced a Coke can that is white in
Tuesday, September 10, 2019
Gilbert and Sullivan Theatrical Partnership - Essay Example Sullivan was a junior of Gilbert and he was the composer and thus he was responsible for contributing memorable melodies which successfully delivered humor along with pathos. 1 The operas were successful in providing enduring and also broad international success along with performing frequently throughout the English speaking world especially. Sullivan and Gilbert basically introduced innovations along with bright new ideas in content and also form the directly influenced development which is involved in musical theatre. This practice was famous and was popular throughout the 20th century. The operas had a huge influence on the literature, film, television and also political discourse and it was widely pastiche and parodied by a humorist. The partnership of Sullivan and Gilbert was brought together by the famous producer Richard D Oyle Carte who basically nurtured and brought together the collaborations. He was responsible for building the Savoy Theatre during the year 1881 and he also presented their joint works which were popularly known as Savoy Operas and they were also responsible for founding D Oyly Carte Opera Company which was good in performing and also promoting the SullivanÃ¢â¬â¢s and GilbertÃ¢â¬â¢s work as a lyricist and composer for almost over a century. Gilbert and Sullivan had played a major role in influencing the English speaking world and the pop culture. Operas of Gilbert and Sullivan had become extremely popular and the lines and quotations have become an integral part of English language. The Savoy operas have played a massive role in influencing the course of development of modern musical theatre and also the political style, literature, discourse and also advertising.Ã
7 - Research Paper Example In order to develop such a system, the software development team should make use of different design patterns because these patterns help them detect problems that arise during the development. It also provides an effective solution of problems (Martin, 2000). Ã¢â¬Å"In object oriented architectures, a design repeats the same structures over and over again. These repeating structures of design and architecture are known as design patternsÃ¢â¬ (Martin, 2000). Additionally, there are many design patterns that are used in different scenarios. In addition, each pattern is aimed at solving a specific problem (Hauck, 2014). The objective of this paper is to discuss the pattern that can be used for an automatic health monitoring system. In the scenario of an automatic health monitoring system the behavioral pattern is best suited because behavioral patterns are useful for supporting communication between different objects. In software engineering, behavioral design patterns are typical design patterns, which are required for identifying common communication patterns and connecting different objects. In this manner behavioral patterns are helpful in increasing flexibility in carrying out any sort of communication between objects. In fact, this pattern offers much greater flexibility than other patterns because this pattern allows software developers to decouple objects from each other. Due to this coupling and decoupling facilities, they can be easily configured to make dynamic algorithms and methods (Schatten, 2013; Morandi, et al., 2013). In the scenario of an automatic health monitoring system there are different objects, which have various relationships and can demonstrate different results in response to different inputs. The pattern that we will use for an automatic health monitoring system is known as behavioral pattern. The working of this pattern is discussed