Saturday, August 31, 2019

Aristotle and John Stuart Mill on Happiness and Morality

Aristotle and John Stuart Mill on Happiness and Morality In this paper I will argue that Aristotle’s conception of eudaimonia disproves Mill’s utilitarian view that pleasure is the â€Å"greatest good. † The purpose of this paper is to contrast Aristotle’s and Mills views on the value of happiness and its link to morality. First I will describe Aristotle’s model of eudaimonia. Then I will present Mill’s utilitarian views on happiness and morality. Lastly, I will provide a counterargument to Mill’s utilitarian ethical principles using the Aristotelian model of eudaimonia.In this section I will explain Aristotle’s definition of eudaimonia and its relationship to happiness, morality and the virtues. Aristotle defines eudaimonia in the first book of the Nicomachean Ethics as â€Å"virtuous activity in accordance with reason† and that this is the highest good for human beings. For Aristotle, eudaimonia can be translated into a â€Å"human life of flourishing† since it occurs throughout a person’s life. This lifelong happiness is complete and sufficient in itself, meaning that a person lives it as an end in itself and not for anything else beyond it.An important aspect of reaching our own eudaimonia is to function well as human beings. Aristotle presents his concept of the human function by stating that what makes human function so distinct is not just to obtain nutrition and to grow because that aspect of life is shared with plants and it is also not perception because that is something shared with animals. Our ultimate human function therefore is reason and not just reason alone but to act in accordance to reason. Achieving excellence in human rational activity according to Aristotle is synonymous with leading a moral life.To lead a moral life is a state in which a person chooses to act in accordance to the right virtues. Aristotle, defines virtue as  a mean between two extremes (excess and deficiency). He argues that the mean is not necessarily the average or half way point, but rather changes in relation to each individual. For example, a person who just finished jogging needs more water after jogging than a person who was not jogging, so the mean between too much water and too little water is different for the jogger and non-jogger.According to Aristotle, it is very difficult to discover the mean, to discover the exact point between the two extremes that is best suited for you. As he says, there are many ways to be wrong and only one way to be correct. Aristotle explains that the choice of the mean is going to depend on what the virtuous person’s reasoning is. As in the case of the jogger, he will drink just enough water to quench his thirst (deficiency) but won’t drink too much that would result in water in water intoxication (excess).Aristotle focuses his moral theory on virtuous action and argues that virtue is necessary, but not sufficient for happiness. You need virtue to lead a happy life, but ultimately, virtue alone will not make you happy. What matters most is that you make a habit out of choosing to act in accordance with the right virtues, which leads to a balance in one’s life and ultimately leads you closer and closer to achieving your own eudaimonia. In this next section I will present Mills utilitarian views and the link between happiness and morality and how his views do not coincide with Aristotle’s eudaimonistic ideals.In chapter two of Utilitarianism, John Stuart Mill introduces his concept of utility, also known as the â€Å"Greatest Happiness Principle† to hold that â€Å"actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness. By happiness is intended pleasure, and the absence of pain; by unhappiness, pain, and the privation of pleasure. †Ã‚  In other words, Mill makes it certain that pleasure and freedom from p ain are the only things desirable as goals and all things that we do is desirable because they produce pleasure or prevent pain.Mill understood that it would be demeaning to humans to reduce life to pleasures as this would then put us at the same level as animals. Thus, he introduces the idea of higher and lower pleasures. The higher pleasures are those of a higher quality of that are determined by â€Å"competent judges. † This competent judge is someone who is acquainted with both the higher and lower quality pleasures. In regards to morality, Mill anchors its definition on the premises of the greatest happiness principle stated above.Unlike Aristotle who puts emphasis on the agent (the person themselves) in regards to acting morally, Mill is very indifferent and states that the character of the person and their motives do not matter only the consequence of those actions matter. For Mill, the morality of the action only depends on whether that action will produce pleasure f or greatest number of people. As state before, he explains that pleasure leads to happiness, and happiness is the ultimate goal of each individual. However, morality is â€Å"the rules and precepts for human conduct,† nd not simply the causes of human behavior. Desire may drive human actions, but that doesn’t mean that desire should propel human actions. Morality is the ideal, not the reality. Because of his views on morality Mill would not agree with Aristotle that the completely ethical person will not be conflicted about his ethical choice. According to Mill a person could do the right thing, and act morally while also having the desire to do the wrong thing. To explain this, he gives the example of a rescuer who saves another person from drowning.He helps this person because it is morally right, regardless of being seen as a good Samaritan or if he would’ve been compensated for his actions. Mill would also disagree with Aristotle’s argument that it is determined whether or not someone led a eudaimonistic life only after this person has died. Mill essentially believes in concrete happiness and believes that people should be happy while they are alive. Mill states that pleasures are parts of our happiness and not an â€Å"abstract† means as Aristotle puts it.In this third section I will provide a counterargument to Mill’s utilitarian ethical principles using the Aristotelian model of eudaimonia. I firstly disagree with Mill’s idea that happiness is equated with pursuing acts that only lead to pleasure and avoiding those that decrease pleasure. I side completely with Aristotle in that he believes that the purpose of pleasures is to serve as side product of activity to perfect our activities. For example, for a mathematician to become an excellent mathematician he must become very talented in doing mathematical activities but also must have the pleasure in doing this activity.I also side with him on his statemen t in Book Ten of the Nicomachean Ethics certain pleasures such as those of touch â€Å"can lead us to become servile and brutish† and says that â€Å"it attaches to us not in so far as we are men but in so far as we are animals. † For example those who eat food to the excess have slavish characters because they are choosing to eat past their bodily intake limit. I agree here with Aristotle that those persons who are destitute of self-control do not use their reason, take pleasures exceedingly, in the wrong way and in the wrong objects.Ultimately, in order to act virtuously a person must act rationally in a manner that is between the two extremes of deficiency and excess when it comes to matters of pleasure. Thus, pleasure should not be sought just for its own sake. In terms of moral actions, Mill arguments also seem to be flawed. He believes that the goodness of an action is based on whether or not it produced pleasure and happiness for the greatest number of people. T here is little emphasis on the disposition and character of the agent performing the action.This idea seems illogical because then everyone would be acting without reason and doing things for the wrong intentions. As Aristotle says in Book One of the Nicomachean ethics, â€Å"the man who does not rejoice in noble actions is not good; the good man judges well in matters of the good and the noble. † Here he is referring to the fact that a person who is not performing actions for the right intentions is not a good man at all. To explain this further I will use the example of the drowning person.Aristotle would advise that I should save a drowning person because I have the positive and noble intention to do so and not because someone is going to pay me for helping them. I think Mills view on happiness and morality that pleasures should equate with happiness sounds like it would be ideal to live this type of life. However, this type of logic would not work out in today’s so ciety. He tells us that in order to find out what kinds of pleasures are most valuable we should look to â€Å"competent judges† who seem to just know what are considered the better â€Å"higher† pleasures because they have experienced both the â€Å"higher† and â€Å"lower† pleasures.As Aristotle states, however, not all pleasures are universal to all men because not everyone is directed to the same things. What if their idea of a higher pleasure is to rape women on the streets? The problem with Mill’s argument then is that what this â€Å"competent judge† may consider to be a higher pleasure may actually be a lower pleasure and be very wrong about what they consider to be right. Aristotle would respond to Mills statement that happiness should be concrete by stating that happiness in Mill’s view seems to just be a fleeting experience.For example, if a person spends their whole life trying to figure out a cure for cancer it wonâ€℠¢t be determined whether this person’s life work was meaningful only until we examine this person’s life work. To conclude, I have stated both Aristotle’s and Mills arguments in relation to happiness and morality. Aristotle’s conclude that happiness (eudaimonia) is to have flourishing life in which actions are performed in accordance to virtuousness and reason.Mill, on the hand believes that pleasure is ultimately the greatest type of good and therefore is equated with happiness. I have argued that Aristotle’s concept of eudaimonia disproves Mill’s â€Å"greatest happiness priniciple† on the grounds that pleasure is only a small part of happiness and that the emphasis on living a happy life should be placed on the agent to habitually act in a rational and virtuous manner.

Friday, August 30, 2019

How is Richard II portrayed in act I? Essay

In Act I of Richard II, Richard is portrayed as powerful, pompous and arrogant, all somewhat contrastingly to his portrayal towards the end of the play. We see even as early as Act I glimpses of Richard’s fatal flaws and the crucial mistakes he makes which determine his dramatic fall. The genre of the play is historic tragedy, so the audience know the main protagonist; in this case Richard; is doomed from the start. So, in Act 1 Shakespeare’s portrayal of him is not only purposeful for his fall, but also hugely ironic, making his descent to †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ even more dramatic. Immediately in Act I, Richard’s power and authoritative presence is apparent. The setting in Windsor Castle is a very formal occasion, as Richard gives Bullingbrook and Mowbray a formal hearing. It is really overblown and grandeur setting for the opening scene and so even before any speech, Richard is perceived as being powerful and omnipotent. On stage Richard, is central and stationed upstage to observe the proceedings. When he descends from his raised platform (which was traditional) and walks downstage to stop the proceedings later in the scene, he travels quite a distance on stage, reinforcing his pivotal place on the stage and in the political picture. These proxemics physically symbolise how Richard was the most powerful, which is extremely ironic as at the end of the play the roles are reversed as Bullingbrook defeats Richard. Richard is then the first character to speak, and refers to Bullingbrook and Mowbray by ‘Henry Hereford’ (I/I/3) and ‘Duke of Norfolk’ (I/I/6), making it seem very occasional and formal, so he appears as the voice of authority and as he is the first character to speak, it again re-emphasizes his ascendency. Alongside the first scene being a hugely occasional event, whereby Richards importance and authority is greatly established, is it written in rhyming couplets; likewise the rest of the play. Richard II is the only one of Shakespeare’s plays not written in prose, which gives it a sense of importance and authority. As the title of the play is Richard II, this then dramatizes how much power Richard initially had and so how much was at stake. As king of England in the 14th Century, Richard along with the majority of his people believed in the Divine Right. As we can see by his use of the royal ‘We’(I/I/24) ‘us’(I/I/24) and ‘our’(I/I/84), by this he is referring to himself and God, which shows Richard’s arrogance and audacity, as he refers to himself with a heightened sense of authority. However, as the Act continues we realise that although Richard is King of England so along with the title comes extraordinary wealth and power, Richard is not all that powerful and authoritative. When he uses the metaphor ‘Rage must be withstood/ Give me this gage. Lions make leopards time’ (I/II/173-4) here he is trying to assert his dominance and gain back control over the hearing as Bullingbrook and Mowbray demand a fight. He is reminding them of his pre-eminence, which makes him seem not only egotistical but shows his lack of control especially following Mowbray’s reply; ‘Yea, but not change his spots’ (I/II/175). His undaunted and scintillating response show is lack of true and honest respect for Richard, aside from formalities. It shows Richard’s lack of intrinsic power if a noble can under-mine him, and feels the need to knowing what the consequences may be. Not only is the whole play written in poetic rhyming couplets, but much of Richard’s speech is written very poetically and Shakespeare uses a lot of colourful and figurative language in his speech. By ‘face to face’ ‘brow to brow’ ‘the accuser and the accused’ Richard is repeatedly using mirroring imagery to re-enforce the idea of the ‘standoff’ coming between Bullingbrook and Mowbray, but also signifies the ultimate standoff between himself and Bullingbrook. However, this repetition creates a racy rhythm making him sound arrogant and pompous. From Richards continuous use of dramatic and poetic language, we can see he is not a man of action; a conclusion which is supported as in Act I Scene I he stands away and watches Bullingbrook and Mowbray fight, he is higher than them, symbolically and physically. Also, by him stopping Bullingbrook and Mowbray’s joule ‘Let them lay by their helmets and their spears/ And both return back to their chairs again’ (I/III/119-20) he looks effeminate and weak. Although he has an extraordinary flair for poetry but this appears to be his fatal flaw, he relies on language and words rather than traditional war and action. This is totally contrasting to Bullingbrook’s characterisation in Act I, he is willing to fight Mowbray till death ‘And as I truly fight, defend me heaven’ (I/III/41), he is a man of action and it is this which ultimately leads to Richard’s fall and defeat. However, this is somewhat ironic as his failing is words, but Shakespeare himself is a man of words and beautifully poetic language, which makes his failing and collapse even more dramatic as it is totally un-expected for his audience. As well as seeing Richard’s dependence on words and poetry we also are also introduced to another of Richards fatal mistakes. In Act 1 Scene 4 we see Richard in a completely new light, when Bushy informs him of Gaunt’s deteriorating health and the fact he is close to death, instead of feeling grief or any malice or despondency his first thought is of his inheritance. His response is cruel and heartless, only focusing on his financial gains from Gaunt’s death, ‘The lining of his coffers shall make coats/ To deck our soldiers for these Irish wars. ’ Gaunt’s inheritance is right-fully his son’s, Bullingbrook, so by taking it Richard is giving Bullingbrook a reason to avenge and try to destroy him. Not only does this make Richard seem brutal and callous, but also narcissistic and gallant as he does not even consider Bullingbrook’s reaction. As Richard believes he is God’s representative on earth, he sees himself as ‘untouchable’ impenetrable, so Bullingbrook’s anger does not matter as he cannot defeat him as he is protected by God- an idea certain to make Richard fall, and clearly apparent to the audience. Overall, Richard’s portrayal changes throughout Act I as his flaws and cracks begin to show. He is shown to be authoritative and powerful initially but we then see him to not be as powerful as he believes himself to be. However, there is no doubt that he is egocentric and contemptuous, apparent through his exaggerated self-opinion.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Region Report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Region Report - Essay Example For a region with such modest total land area, it is host to a large number of different languages. There are examples from the Germanic group (German, Dutch, and Danish) and the Romance group (French) (de Blij and Muller, 2004). The large number of languages spoken in Western Europe is somewhat of a hindrance to the unified Europe movement, but the EU seems to be dealing effectively with the heterogeneous nature of its membership. Western Europe has an additional advantage in the area of language: it enjoys one of the highest literacy rates in the world. In the western part of this region, English is perhaps the most common language, but its influence diminishes as one heads east in Europe (MapQuest, 2005). The most powerful country in the region is Germany. It is the most populous, has the strongest economy, and is influential in the EU. Its geography features northern lowlands, uplands in the central area, and the Bavarian Alps in south Germany led much of the world into war twice during the twentieth century. After each world war, nations of the world were eager to restrict Germany’s industrial power, since it had been so integral in the success of Germany’s military. But in West Germany, the American-led Marshall Plan sought to rescue Germany’s economy so that it would not be faced with the same economic stability that had allowed the Nazional Party to rise. As a result, West Germany was organized into a modern federal state with strong democratic principles. Its economy grew rapidly: from 1949 to 1964, its GNP tripled and industrial output steadily rose (de Blij and Muller, 2004). West Germany’s political leaders aggressively sought new trade partners, and took advantage of the nation’s central location. Its infrastructure demolished, it built new transportation networks and facilities based on the latest technology (de Blij and Muller, 2004). In 1990, it reunified with East Germany and took on the economic burden of its flagging

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Paper - What is a Database Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Paper - What is a Database - Essay Example As an example of the business use of a database, an online store is a common one, and E-bay is a large database that consists of customers and sale items. It is an also an example of a database with a web-form, that is, a form where a customer can enter their contact information along with the information about the item they want to sell. As a second example that relates to this one, any business needs to track clients or customers and their respective contact information. While the following will expand on the example of an online store, it should be mentioned that most business' have customers and most customers need to be tracked, so this is a second example of a business application. An online store, like E-bay, would need at least two tables of information, and these would be a table that contained customers and their information and financial transactions, and in turn, a store would also minimally have a table that contained all of the items that were for sale. In general, a ta ble is a set of information that has unique and self-contained information. In the case of the store, one wants to establish a 'relational' [O'Neill and O'Neill 15] database – that is, one needs to link up the customers (table 1) with their inventory (e.g. table 2), but one also needs to keep this information apart.

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Week 6 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Week 6 - Essay Example Manufacture of aircraft parts involves many risks and therefore the need to develop a good risk response plan. The risks involved in the manufacture of aircraft parts vary widely. The risks may be financial, supplier related or directly related to the manufacturing process. Aerospace manufacturers rely more heavily on the global suppliers which increase to risks. Aircraft parts manufacturers therefore are more exposed to supply chain disruptions leading to disruptions in the production schedules. This is harmful to the learning of the business as there is usually corporate upheaval and loss of sales. The risks of a supplier of raw materials may be reputational, financial regulatory or worse still penalties. Some of the parts manufacturing may also be outsourced to other manufacturers therefore the company may face risks of getting parts that are incompatible with one another. This further delays the manufacture of the aerospace industry parts. The manufacturers also face the challenges of overrelying on one supplier of specific parts. In case there is a problem with the supplier, the manufacturing process is disrupted and the manufacturer incurs huge losses. The manufacturing process risks include injury from the metals parts, chemicals and the power. This may generally harm the employees who may seek compensation from the manufacturer. The manufacture of aerospace parts involves use of high temperatures and high voltages. Also the chemicals used are inflammable therefore if handled without care they may explode (Huskamp & Lyons, par 2). The probability of risk occurrence can be measured through use of previously collected data. The probability of occurrence of raw materials and parts suppliers related risks can be estimated through the evaluation of the financial status of the supplier. When the financial status of the supplier is above board, there is less

Monday, August 26, 2019

Philosophy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 6

Philosophy - Essay Example Aristotle points out that nature of causes determines the nature of the causes’ objectives and the friendships differ in species (Aristotle, 78). Aristotle claims that to love for pleasure is only to love for utility as love for utility x while mean an individual loves x for pleasure (Pangle 56). Accordingly, utility varies with each individual, as older people are more inclined to seeking utility relationships (Aristotle, 1156a25). In this case, Aristotle clarifies that what is relative is not enduring. Aristotle defends his argument by outlining that This essay will explore the strengths of objections to the argument in order to confirm Aristotle argument on the nature of true friendships. Objectors to key premises Opponents of Aristotle argument outline that relationships develop after a long period of time and long-term relationships are more meaningful than short-term relationships. In this case, objectors point out those individuals who take time to form intimate and clo ser relationships will avoid the temptations of pleasurable and transitory relationships that entail utility considerations. The opponents assert that life is ever-changing with new forms of friendships thus individuals must aim at attaining satisfactory at every day. The objectors assert that the nature of certain relationships entail unequal exchanges and the amount of love must be equivalent to proportion to the utility obtained by each person. Case example of such relationships includes rule-subject relationship and father-son relationship. In this case, the subject will display more love for the ruler if he or she believes is getting enough utility from the ruler (Pangle 100). Replies to objections Aristotle counters the objections by asserting that ‘true friends’ are good in themselves and virtues since they wish well to their friends and desire to maintain the friendship. True friends will be pleasant and useful to each other and do not enter in to incidental fri endships that are based on expected pleasures or utility (Pangle 67). Aristotle clarifies that love for utility means that an individual loves for pleasure and love for pleasure only is to love for utility thus the love is based on extrinsic reasons. In this case, some lovers complain their excess love is not reciprocated while beloved may complain that his lover promised some pleasures, but performs nothing of those expectations. A case scenarios will arise when the lover loves the other for the sake of attaining pleasure while the beloved for the sake of utility and both do not possess the qualities expected in the relationship. Aristotle demonstrates that the friendship will cease to exist if the parties do not receive the things that formed the motive of love since each did not love each other for the sake of their likeable characters and qualities. From the argument, Aristotle concludes that love for pleasure and utility is transient unlike love formed on the basis of character s and qualities that are self-dependent and do not change with time (Pangle 234). The utility in friendships is relative to the needs as older people are oriented towards the expedient seek utility relationships. Individuals who are guided by feelings seek to satisfy such feelings as evidenced by young personas who engage in routine activities such as football games in order to satisfy their pleasure and erotic feelings of young persons. The satisfaction of the underlying feelings leads to pleasure, but feelings change with time thus making the relationship not enduring (Pangle 167). Theoretical observations Aristotle articulates that genuine friends loves and likes the other person for the same of that other person and friendship entails reciprocal goodwill. Aristotle offers three types of friendships that include

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Advertising analysis (Nokia and Apple) Research Paper

Advertising analysis (Nokia and Apple) - Research Paper Example Nokia and Apple-two famous household names which have established their craft and credibility in manufacturing gadgets.However,these two brands have crossed their way as they compete for man's hunt for the most appealing mobile phone this generation can offer with the launch of Apple iPhone.As the competition for man's attention arises, advertisement of mobile phones has propagated rapidly. Hence, as a mobile phone user myself, my attention was drawn to two of the latest commercials of mobile phones, each from the above-mentioned mobile phone manufacturers.The Nokia N93 and Apple iPhone both launched their commercials on television. The Nokia N93 commercial whose sophistication has been branded by its plain black background, starts with the introduction of this Nokia model. As the commercial progresses, espoused by a background song from the classic band Moby, the features and its specifications are enumerated in print whilst the mobile phone shows off how these features are executed . The commercial closes with the logo of Nokia with their slogan "Connecting people".Apparently, Nokia has remained to patronize the bandwagon propaganda for this advertisement, which tries to convince consumers that since everyone else is doing it, they will be left out if they do not (Pollio, 1990). As majority of mobile phone users focus on the specifications of a mobile phone and indulge in knowing how to utilize this information, Nokia dwells on specifically identifying the details of the Nokia N93, such as the resolution, screen size and camera attributes. However, considering that Nokia has used the music of Moby to be the background music of this commercial, the commercial obviously appeals to all ages of mobile phone users who can afford to buy the phone. This is because the music supplied by Moby appeals to the older generation in which Moby has started as a band, and to the younger generation as well who nowadays settle to classic rock music. However, as the phone is a high-end model, it generally targets the upper society who can afford to purchase the Nokia N93. This is evident on the font of the features enumerated and the plain black background, which usually symbolizes wealth and refinement. Furthermore, the detailed enumeration of the features of the phone implies that the Nokia N93 is inclined to be marketed to the type of consumers who are feature-conscious. On the other hand, the commercial of the Apple iPhone begins with minimal background music, as a man's voice starts expressing how amazing things can fit in your pockets, thus referring to the Apple iPhone. Then, it proceeds with the voice naming the "amazing things" which can fit in this mobile phone. Contrary to the Nokia commercial, the features of iPhone are not detailed and specific. However, the delivery of the features of the phone is enough for its viewers to understand its attributes. As Apple has already established a brand marketed to the upper society-classy, sophisticated yet simple, which is being tried by Nokia to emulate, the black background and classic background music appeals to the elite. Additionally, the advertisement of Apple iPhone tends to appeal to the type of consumers who are design-oriented. Hence, this type of consumers is represented by those who care less about the functionality of the phone but dwell more on the design of the gadget. Nonetheless, the advertisement also tries to break the stereotype that the iPhone, being an Apple product, is less feature-enhanced. This is manifested as the narrator of the commercial tends to specify the "amazing things" packaged in iPhone. Furthermore, one of the most noticeable aspects of this commercial is Apple's attempts to use the "plain folks" propaganda on which Apple is trying to convince the public that the narrator's views reflect those of the common person (Berger, 1991). This is evident as the voice of the narrator tends to be casual, not too

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Marxist Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 2

Marxist Analysis - Essay Example There is Lewis Anderson, an experienced negotiator from the global parent union. Anderson warns the workers to call off the strike since in his opinion, they will not win. Anderson is right; when the employees refuse to compromise, the corporation simply provides their job to replacement employees. The situation was almost identical in the recent Caterpillar strike. American Dream provides a catastrophic picture of a State in which the philosophy of unionism of employees standing by other employees is dying off. The Marxist theories on capitalism comprise the following; a falling rate of profit, a reserve army of the unemployed, business crises, increasing despair of the proletariat, and escalating concentration of industry into few firms. In the Marxian model, the capitalist is the main player in the economic process. The capitalist search for earnings and response to adjusting rates of profits largely explains the dynamics of the capitalist system. In the Marxist model, capitalists rationally and intentionally pursue their economic benefits and implant seeds of their own destruction. According to Marx, capitalism generates undesirable social outcomes, for example, the events depicted in the movie (Marx 762). In the Marxian model, augmented capital accumulation will raise the labor demand. Increase in demand for labor raises the wage rates. Increasing wage rates lead to diminishing surplus value and profits. Marx explains this scenario using the concept of the reserve army of the unemployed. In Marxist view, there is continuously an excess labor supply in the market, which has the influence of lowering wages and maintaining the profits and surplus value positive. In search of profits, capitalists introduce new machines in the production process. Direct unemployment in the reserve army occurs as a result of replacement of employees with new technology (Marx

Friday, August 23, 2019

Hellenic and Hellenistic Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Hellenic and Hellenistic - Essay Example Hellenic world had the following characteristics: small cities with self-government system, education gained with the help of private tutors, limited commercial activity, women's role limited to domestic affairs, widespread slavery usage, development of poetry and drama introduction, philosophical movements with emphasis on logic and ethic, introduction of experimental method into sciences, and belief into Olympian gods. Hellenistic world was similar to Hellenic world, however, several new features were common: cities ruled by the wealthy class with centralization of power in the hands of monarchs, education provided at gymnasiums, extensive trade both on the sea and land, introduction of the marriage contracts (women could possess slaves and be property owners), local cultures mixed with classic Greek, philosophical emphasis shifted to non-rationalism and mysticism, and significant advances in astronomy and medicine (Thornton, p. 16-23). Position of women in the society is one of the differences between Hellenic and Hellenistic societies. In Hellenic civilization, marriages were the form of contract between the father of the girl and the father of the boy and were seen as the mean to consolidate the power. Usually men married in their late thirties. They had access to women before: so-called hetairas (prostitutes) were very common. Women from the higher level families, on the other side, were completely isolated from the society, they were not allowed to show themselves in public or when the guests arrived. Women lived in their own side of the house and usually married very early, in their mid-teens. Hellenistic culture has made a significant step in making women's position almost equal to men's. Women were allowed to own the property and slaves, to be the agents in business affairs and could sign the marriage contract outlining the responsibilities of both parties, the divorce and property ownership. Women could be the initiator of the divorce without being looked upon by society. Polis was the distinctive characteristic of Hellenic civilization. Polis was the city-state with independent government - there have been hundreds of such cities in Greece. City-state was governed by the oligarchy or by the representatives of upper level social class. This was some form of the dictatorship. In the sixths century, however, some form of democracy has been introduced into Greek civilization: Athenian democracy when citizens were granted the right to vote hold the office and own the property (Thornton, p. 85-86). Hellenistic age has changed the situation: absolute centralized monarchy has been introduced and more opportunities were granted to upper class women. Women still could not vote or participate in political activities, however, they were involved indirectly and their opinion has been taken into account. Hellenistic monarchy has laid the foundation for the development of urban culture. The typical male representative of Hellenic culture was concerned with polis, conformist and oriented towards the public life, while the representative of Hellenistic culture was individualistic, possessed cosmopolitan outlook and was oriented towards

Music assignment. Just By Myself,Moanin,A Night In Tunisia,I Remember Essay

Music assignment. Just By Myself,Moanin,A Night In Tunisia,I Remember Clifford - Essay Example The concert took place in Palais Des Beaux Arts in Brussels in the year 1939 at night. The scene is described to be having five personnel on stage with two soloists; saxophonist and trumpeters’. The drummer is in the far right behind huge drums, guitarist at the center and pianists in the far left. The concert begins with a high pitched solo by saxophonist and soft base sound from the drums. The song played is a modern jazz. Drums go all along the play giving a base sound which balances the high pitch from saxophone and trumpet. When the saxophonesoloist stops, trumpeter takes over the soloing. The piano is played alone just before the climax. In the climax of the song all instruments are played on maximum performance giving the song a sweet entertaining conclusion. The drum is played using sticks and it is played all through the song giving the song a walking bass. The trumpet is interchanged with saxophone. They both provide the ride pattern with the support of the piano at the background. Just after the end of the song, the drummer ArtBlakely takes to the microphone and gets a laughter to the audience then gives them the next step. This is so important since he involves the audience in the concert. I pick on the drummer who has made a great effort in drum playing all through the song. He was successful since he was able to give the song the bass sound matching the other instruments perfectly.

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Behaviorist description of depression Essay Example for Free

Behaviorist description of depression Essay The behavioral perspective of depression links the disorder to a deficit of positive reinforcements in ones life. This lack of reinforcement results in the decline of constructive behavior, which in turn results in depression. Behaviorists posit that a person suffering from depression can develop a plan of action to replenish the deficit of positive reinforcement through the cooperation of family, friends and the therapist. In other words, according to behaviorists, the patients inability to cope with life stress leads to social withdrawal, which reduces the rate of positive reinforcements, which then results in depression. The belief that a person suffering from depression can behave him- or herself out of it is both appealing and troublesome. The benefits of constructive activity notwithstanding, dependence on others for positive reinforcement could result in depression that waxes and wanes in direct proportion to the presence or absence of external stimuli. The danger inherent is this view is of placing too strong a focus on those external reinforcements. A patient who places conditions of worth on his or her actions may be convinced that others will never be in a state of approval of those actions. Such a patient may benefit more greatly from a cognitive therapy that addresses his or her maladaptive thinking patterns and self-deprecating automatic thoughts. It is the therapists responsibility to assess the most effective treatment based on the patients individual profile. The specific therapeutic approach must be tailored to the patents needs and capabilities. If the patient requires guidance to change maladaptive thinking, then a plan to simply change behavior is doomed to fail. The behaviorist perspective can also be interpreted as placing responsibility for depression squarely on the shoulders of the patient. Encouragement (of the patient to take charge of his or her own recovery by changing the nature of his or her personal relationships) can be effective with a strong-willed person who is committed to recovery. By helping to develop a plan of action and monitoring its success and opportunities for improvement, the behavioral therapist maintains at once a reliable presence at a respectful distance. The patients relationships are also important factors in depression that must be addressed to treat depression; ergo behavioral therapy must tackle negativity in that facet of the patients life. The therapist must assess the overall relationship dynamic and any negative patterns of communication between the patient and his or her most significant others. Ideally, a behavioral therapist has evaluated the patient and hypothesized that he or she will benefit from changing behavioral patterns. The therapist patient will then work closely with the patient to assess the nature of his or her innate behavioral patterns to determine which are constructive and which detract from his or her impression of positive reinforcement. Classical conditioning is not suited for this task but modeling and shaping may be effective. Operant conditioning, by definition, is the order of the day. The patient will receive continuous positive reinforcement for behaviors that combat his or her depression, while those that feed the depression will become extinct.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

The Common Causes Of Business Failure Business Essay

The Common Causes Of Business Failure Business Essay Lack of Industry Experience and Knowledge, Insufficient Start-up Money, Failure to Understand Market and Customers, Poor Employee Management Skills, Wrong Location, Improper Pricing of Product or Service, Failure to Understand and React to Competition, Incorrect Cash-Flow Estimates (Poor Budgeting), Insufficient Time Devoted to Business, Mismanagement of Assets,(Cash ,Inventory, Receivables, Fixed Assets) Prepare Sales Tax Make Quarterly Payments, Estimate Income Tax, Make Payments, Analyze Doubtful Accounts Receivables, Review Detailed Inventory Schedule, Analyze Prepaid Expenses, Review Schedule of Property and Equipment, Review Accounts Payable/Accrued Expenses, Review Schedule of Insurance Policies. Reconcile to PL, analyze Inventory Write-downs, Analyze Other Assets and Other Liabilities, Analyze Current/Long-Term Debt, Prepare IRS Forms W-2 (employee) and Forms 1099 (consultant), Close Financial Books for the Year, Draft Financial Reports (if needed), Draft Tax Returns If they have no ideas of these items there was maximum chance of business failure and need to minimize the business and go ahead to success. Fredland and Morris (1976) says when a owner start a business he/she/company accept the three kinds of risk. which resolve the success to the business. firstly. risk related with the economy in which business is located. it referred to economy based risk. Secondly, risk related with the industry in which that business is operating. It referred to industry based. Thirdly, risk related with the business itself which is unique. I t refereed to firm based risk. According to (Dun and Bardstreet 1997), said that most of the business are failure because they cannot survey about their business and their employees. Only 20 employees have 37% chance to surveying four years. 9% chance of surveying 10 years and these failed business 10%of them closed involuntarily due to bankruptcy and 90% closed because the business was not successful. Other thing is owner didnt pay how much the employee wants or desired as for their effort. In US over 43000 business failed on 1997 thats total liabilities nearly $20 billion.90% business failure in the US are caused by a lack of general business management skills and planning. According to Dun Bradstreet statistics7, 88.7% of all business failures are due to management mistakes. The following list summarize the 12 leading management mistakes that lead to business failures. 1) Going into business for the wrong reasons 2) Advice from family an friends 3) Being in the wrong place that the wrong time 4) Entrepreneur gets worn-out and/or underestimated the time requirements 5) Family pressure on time and money commitments 6) Pride 7) Lack of market awareness 8) The entrepreneur falls in love with the product/business 9) Lack of financial responsibility and awareness 10) Lack of a clear focus 11) Too much money 12) Optimistic/Realistic/Pessimistic It should be understood that no magic solutions will guarantee a business success. However, the following items should assist in the improvement of chances for success. 1) Development of a business plan 2) Obtaining accurate financial information about the business in a timely manner 3) Profile of target 4) Profile of competition 5) Go into business for the right reasons 6) Dont borrow family money and dont ask the family for advice 7) Network with other business owners in similar industries 8) Dont forget, someone will always have a lower price than you 9) Realize that consumer tastes and preference change 10) Become better informed of the resources that are available 1.2.2 some causes of business failure in the market 1. Lack of clear links between the objectives and the organisations key strategic priorities, including agreed measures of success. 2. Lack of clear senior management and other level. 3. Lack of effective engagement with stakeholders. 4. Lack of skills and established approach to project management and risk management. 5. Too little attention to breaking development and implementation into manageable steps. 6. Evaluation of proposals driven by initial price rather than long-term value for money (especially securing delivery of business benefits). 7. Lack of understanding and contact with the supply industry at senior levels in the organisation. 8. Lack of effective organization team integration between clients, the supplier team and the supply chain. 1.2.3 Small Business Success story One of the success busine.ss story of Oscar Neal Asbury who is the founder and president of Greenfield World Trade. He involved in exporting of high quality US product since 1979.he gives the service for the food and equipment over 130 countries to both retail and commercial market. Now a days Asbury is the US economy stragglers he expanding his products. He is a success business man at getting loan during the national credit crunch and witness to the financial strength of his company as well as the strategic importance of being an exporter to over 130 countries. He won the prestigious award 2008 small business week National Exporter Year award and E-Star Export and the Export Achievement award from the US Department of commerce. In 1981 he went to Asia for represented several US manufactures throughout the region and In 1987 he found Asbury worldwide which became the largest American Export management company in its segment with 12 distribution facilities around the world. He starts FAB Asia, Inc. In the Philippines which was the exclusive Asian fabricators of commercial kitchens for McDonalds as well as other well known American restaurants and chains. In 1999 Mr. Asbury established his current company, Greenfield World trade ,.Inc. He published over 50articals on global trade issues, a column for to The Point News and International Trade Blog for asburysworld.com . Mr. Asbury is also an advocate, leader in this field and also the US secretary of commerce, he serves as the chairman of the South Florida district Export Council and is a founding faculty member of Export University. He is also the member of the international policy committee at the US chamber of commerce in Washington DC. This is the successful business story of Asbury in the small business organization who gives his effort for the organization. At that time he used various types of ideas and business strategy with their business competitors. when the business start it need to faced many kinds of internal and external problems. For the success business organization reduce or solving problem which effect the organization . The modern business is very complex. Due to scientific and technological development, changes are taking place very fast in every business field. Following are the basic personal skills or qualities which a good businessman must possess: 1. Ability to Plan :A businessman, if he wants to shine in business, must have the ability to plan and organize it. 2. Activator He had to activate his workers. If he activates his workers then this is good for business. 3. Bold or Courage :Courage is a great asset of a businessman. A good businessman should be a courageous and bold person. May be his some angry decisions gave him loss in future, so he has to be courageous and be bold. 4. Cooperation :A good businessman should have to cooperate with his workers. With the help of cooperation with his workers he can run his business well. 5. Courtesy: Courtesy is to business what oil is to machinery. It costs nothing but wins a reputation. So businessman has to win the heart of everyone with his polite manners. 6. Decision Making: A good businessman should be a good and quick decision maker. Quick decision of a businessman is an important asset of businessman. And businessman has to know that his quick decision will give him benefit or not. 7. Discipline: A good businessman should have to care about the discipline of the business. If he doesnt care about the discipline then nobody (who concern to his business) obeys the discipline and business cant go well. 8. Evaluator: A businessman has to check himself that how he is working. This thing can make the business good in progress. 9. Foresight: A good businessman must have the quality of foresight. He must keep in touch with the business world. He should move about and see what is going on for he has to estimate new wants and new inventions for creating fresh demands. 10. Honesty: A businessman should be honest in dealing with others. Honesty of a businessman helps him in his business. 11. Hardworking: A businessman must be hard working. Without have working no business can be successful. If the owner is not hard working then other workers of the business cant be hardworking. 12. Initiation: The business world is moving at a very fast speed. A businessman should have the ability to take initiative by producing new things and new methods of marketing the products and services. 13. Knowledge: A good businessman should have knowledge of his business. It should be supplemented by the knowledge of trade, finance, marketing, income tax, etc. 14. Leadership: Leaders are not made, they are born; but the businessman has to get some qualities of a leader. With the help of leadership a businessman can control his business and workers. 15. Negotiator: If a businessman is a good negotiator, then he can run his business well, because without good communication he cant impress his consumer. 16. Personality: A businessman should have a graceful personality because it can impress his customers. If his personality is not good or not graceful then his business cant go well. 1.3 Significance of study Why is the business planning is important and why it will be done in concert with a strategy? What benefits will occur by this study? For the success of any organization, planning should be the most important to achieve the goal. Without the planning organization never achieve the target of goal and objectives of organization by view of macro perspective business is done in a global market. Because of the growing new technology and the Internet. Time and distance continue to become less and less relevant. In a view of micro, the level of any individual company or organization strategic planning provides a company purpose and direction. It is importance to owners of organization and high level managers who make plans and policies to achieving goals. The main benefit of this planning is make no mistake in business running when the planning is making 1st find out the weakness of organization and try to removed this weakness which get the success and the goal of organization. 1.4 Research Questions and/or Hypotheses and/or Null Hypotheses The objectives of any good business research should be how to better promote the business in an economically sound manner and to increase the businesses net profit, exposure, and ensure its continuity. Another characteristic of good business research is judging local problems of the environment in which establishment is going to operate. If the business is manufacturing a specific product, look at the market size and options on how to produce the product. characteristic of good business research objectives is flexibility . To identify about the policies and strategy of other competitors of the market. what they are doing? 1.5 Analytical Procedure: Analytical procedure helps to find out the target objectives. It refers to the procedure of using the analytical statistical tools and data. There are not any specific tools that can be used to find out the desired outcome. For the study it will be used the SWOT analysis System has been used. A brief description of the SWOT 1.5.1 Internal analysis of the organization The SWOT analyse is made by observing and describing ( it is a qualitative analyse ) the characteristics of our business and of the market where it is found. The SWOT analysis allows to detect the strength of our company and the threats of the environment. S -Strength : describes the resources and the skills that our company has acquired. What is the difference from the company? What can we improve ? W -Weakness : describes the factors in which we have unfavourable position with regard to the competence. In order to make the internal analysis. In order to make the internal analysis , has to be considered the analysis of resources, of activities and risks. External analysis of the organization O -Opportunities : they describe the possible markets, business niches that can be seen by everyone, but if they are not recognized on time that would mean the loss of the competitive advantage. T -Threats : The describe the factors that cab put in danger the survival of the organization , if they are recognised on time they can dodge or they can become opportunities. In order to make the internal analysis we have to take into account the analysis of the environment, of the interested groups, the legislation, and the demographic and political aspects. Once we have described the threats, the opportunities, the strengths and the weakness of the company, we can construct the SWOT matrix. Matrix let us visualise and summarised the present situation of the company. Chapter-2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 INTRODUCTION The main objectives of this chapter is to review the previous and existing literature which is close to the research topic and objectives. In this chapter we get the clear vision about the business organization and the short description about the strategies planning ,policies, knowledge management, business environment, causes ,process and the symptoms of the business failure and how to alignment . The research will be predictably analysis under different views which relevant different methods of business prediction. This study business failure helps to sustain long term run in market, save form competitors and how to manage the internal and external environmental problems of business organization for the success of business organization. 2.2 Overview of business organization According to recent statistics from the UKsMinistry of Justice, almost 12,000 companies filed for insolvency in 2007 in England and Wales.This number is forecast to increase significantly (to around 13,500 companies) in 2008 (Financial Times, 2 January 2008) as the financial crisis hits businesses in the wider economy. Smaller companies are likely to suffer most because of a slowing economy and the increasing costs of borrowing in a deteriorating business environment. Business organization refers to that economic activity which is conduct on regular basis to earning profit motive through the production and sale of goods and service. In other word business means to remain busy in any activity like buying and selling production or distribution goods or service. Shrestha k.N.( 2010 pp.4-5) says that business organization which are formed for earning profit. they are mainly concerned with producing goods and service of value to the society .companies ,partnership, sole trading and joint stock are organised along this lines with a profit motive to survive against competition , future expansion and development. Taylor , F.W. (1856-19150 ) says a business organization usually in the manufacturing field, which provides students with education and training to degree standard.(David A.staat business management.1991,1999,2004 Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor and Francis group.) Much of todays economic and business thinking is based on the ideas of the scientific movements towards the end of the nineteenth century one of the main underlying assumptions was that the economy and the business environment form a closed system in a state of dynamic equilibrium. By Beinhocker, (1997) . Ansoffs (1993) states the model of environmental turbulence which shows the extreme case of discontinuous unpredictably changing environment. The main objective of purposed organizations lack of complete information or different organization interpret the same information in different way? And business is the lifeblood of capitalist society. At once time or another we have all consider going into business. Everyday millions of people in the US buy goods from business one pay tax. Which invest on another business. The tax generated by these business help support a government infrastructure that is unrivalled in the modern world by Bevans(1961) 2.3 Business Strategy Mc. kiernan (1997) identified four strands to strategy theory and the knowledge based approach to strategy is sometimes subsumed into core competence or resource based strategy. We believed, however that knowledge -based strategy has its own distinctive characteristic at the same time as providing a fundamental underpinning for all the other theories of strategic Management . strategic learning is concerned with the process by which leaders, managers and organization learn about themselves. Their business and environment. Strategic learning is vital to development of the strategic knowledge upon which superior performance is based by Nokaka(1991)and other authors Chandler (1962) state that the strategy is determination of the basic long term and objectives of an enterprise and the adoption of course of action and all the allocation of resources necessary for carrying out of these goal .Porter (1996) state that positioning-once the heart of strategy is rejected as too static for today s dynamic market and changing technological. 2.3.1 Strategy Formation According to Teeca. et al (1995) says that the fundamental questions in the field of strategic management is how firm achieve and sustain competitive advantage. By the development a dynamic capabilities approach, the four questions helps define the field of strategic management its boundaries as they exist today, it concerns and how it can makes contribution to the practice of management the questions are: How the firm behave? Why are firms different? What is the function of or value added by the headquarters unit in a multi -business firm? What determines the success or failure of the firm in international or national competition? 2.3.2 Business Environment The business firm is a micro-economic- unit which firm operates. Bye environment the reference is the set of external factor on forces which operation of the business firm. The business firm individually doesnt have much influence on the environment. Types of business Environment Economic Environmental business Non Economic Environmental business Economic Environmental business Economic Environmental business activities involve transformation of inputs into outputs , supply of these market place and exchange of the products with the buyer for money, Business organization while performing these economic activities are constrained by the availability of resource ,land ,labour, capital raw materials and finance. Which related internal factors of business environment by Pailwar (2010) and another author states about non economical environmental business or External Environment. Reddy (2004) states that the environment is so complex and dynamic that it is difficult to describe and analysis because it is the external factor which automatically effect to the organization from outside the business organization such as: Political environment Social environment Demographic environment Technological environment Natural environment and Historical environment Organization ; Changing organizational characteristic Organization success when they operate in states of stability and harmony to adopt intentionally to the environment. Lowendahl (2005) concludes the the increasing complexity is transforming the field of strategic management form a search for general solution to an understanding and acceptance that different solution can working equally well. In post modern situation the nation of garnd (formal) theory model or frame work that applies to all organizations in a population collapses, as the characteristics of the organization by definition will be local, unique and temporary. 2.4 Knowledge management: This is the idea for how knowledge is manage like including knowledge management strategy and implementation by the definition of Webester (1992) Relationship management and marketing reflect these changing in management and strategy. These definitions embrace a verity of partners, not just customer and the term relationship can mean a variety of things depending on how it applied. It can be taken to mean only type of cooperation, form a conceive supply relationship to strategies evidence. And another author Donaldson (1998)said the managing various relationship types may place emphasis on managerial style and associated organizational culture. And organization using implementation methods in dealing with one supplier might find it a challenge to change to relationship approach. : identifying customer needs and requirements :anticipating future trends and monitoring environmental forces : satisfying customers existing and future requirements through managing the product or service packing, optimising value for money pricing and maximizing availability and delivery while promoting and selling benefits in the most effective way. :profit, ensuring that the company will be able to provide this process in the future. 2.4.1 Causes, Process and Remedies The failure process of the firm can be compared with the evolution of a disease in a human beings. In the same way failure itself is comparable to death. The causes of failure are often associated with management adequacy. These causes lead to occurrence of symptoms which are observable from the deterioration of financial ration. From the statement given by Luoma and Laitinen (1991) we can infer that a) failure is not a sudden even, it takes some time (evolution of the disease) for a company to become bankruptcy b) financial ratios are only symptoms of failure and c) failure process is triggered off by something causes. Unfortunately , very few authors Altman(1971) Vernimmen(1978) Dambolena and Knoury (1980) Koenig (1985) or Markidakis (1991) are really interested in bankruptcy. Even if the list of causes may be different across studies, we can distinguish two main causes of failure. Endogenous and exogenous factors. The main causes within organization is managerial incompetence this is the case in France and Belgium but also in US where 90% of bankruptcy can be impute to this factor Dambolena and Khoury (1980) add that bad management appears through lack of responsibilities to change in technology. Insufficient consideration for cost factor poor knowledge of financial matters. What exogenous factors concern, Altman (1971) mentions that the change in the nations failure rate is negatively associated with the change in overall economic activities Guilhot (2000) mention that there is a systematic correlation between failure and economic crises stock market performance, and supply condition. Thats why author Altman (1971) include in their macroeconomic factor. The influence of macroeconomic factor on bankruptcy seems particularly important. The numbers of bankruptcy in 2000is decreasing in Belgium to the relatively good and stable economic situation. But Vernimmen (1997) state again that the failure of one firms customer was the main causes of firms bankruptcy in France. This statement introduced bankruptcy prediction is very important topic because failure of a particular company could have unfortunate impact on ither entities. 2.4.2 The symptoms of Failure We already point out that the most of the authors rely on symptoms of the diseased in order to predict failure or bankruptcy. These symptoms can be qualitative or quantitative.(financial ratios) variables. Altman (1968) states that the excluding applications on too typical sector like banking or insurance. Where more and more ratios were used. Its strictly impossible to give here all ratios. We noticed that the most frequently used financial ratios are CA/CL, WC/TA, EBIT/TA and NI/TA. It was necessary to included non-financial and more qualitative information in the model Altman and Loris (1976) and Vernimmen (1978) Dimitras et. Al (1995) Greco et al. (1998) really including as qualitative information bankruptcy predication model. In this section they analysis as qualitative information managers works experiences. Firms market niche-position special competitive advantage of firm or market flexibility. Cormier et al.(1994) include other qualitative indicators like investment in a new sector, change in the depreciation method or change in ownership. Few authors Abdel-Khalik and El-Sheshi (1980) used trend data in the form of the average change over several years in different ratio. It seems that trends variable have a greater ability to draw out information from balance sheet data and more able to deficit creating accounting. Mader (1975) Mensah (1984) Khalos(1985) or Taffer(1985) proved the contrary. The size of the firm seems also have an impact on the financial disease of the firm of the firm. Bryant (1971) and Laitinen (1992) or Jo and Han (1997) shows the incorporate the size represented, like total assets , sales and the numbers of employees. 2.5 Strategic Alignment HR and Business leader must think of strategy and its role in the border HR. Programmes and practice in a holistic way answering these questions as they determine the policies and practice that will be their basis of their business culture. What do we do? How should we do it? What all skills do we need to be successful? What skills do we need survive for future? It means the link between all of the activities that are conduct as part of human resources management and the human resources policy. This links explain the direct application of every single human resource policy, practice and programme support the business. Brocke and Rosemann (2010) conclude that the business process management requires an alignment with the organizational strategy. Only such tight alignment ensure relevance business process management and a valuable contribution to the corporate long term priorities. Alignment doesnt have to be a unidirectional in the typical sense that a BPM strategys oriented towards the corporate strategy. Source: Handbook on process management by J. Vom Brocke and M. Rosemaan (2010) Delivering Business strategy through process management It should be recognized that two phases will naturally build off one another in a never ending cycle from year to year. It formulates enhanced by and planned capabilities from the previous round. CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH- METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction This chapter deals with the research design, justification for the selected study unit, nature and source of data, data collection method, data processing and SWOT analysis The word methodology is defined as a system which comprises the principles, practices and procedures which are applied to a specific branch of knowledge. Methodology refers to the way in which information is found or the way something is done. Methodology includes the methods, techniques and procedures which are used to collect and analyse information. 3.2 Research Design A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. It is the plan structure and strategy on investigations conceived for obtaining answers to research questions and to control variances. To achieve the objective of this study, descriptive and analytical research designs have been used. To evaluate operating performance and the present condition of market, the SWOT analysis is taken as a secondary data analysis tool for this study. 3.3 Source of Data This study is conducted primarily on the basis of secondary data. The data relating to the theoretical based on the business organizations such as impact of internal and external business environment which effect directly to organization . In this cases, the primary data is not taken for the accuracy of analysis. Because it is not possible and also difficult to collect primary data. Supplementary data and information are collected from existing research, journals, news, books and websites. 3.4 Appropriate Research Method For this subject we can choose any method like the Description, explanation, qualitative and quantitative is the methods to collection and analysis of data. 3.4.1 Description Method : to describe a behaviour or type of subject not to look for any specific relationships, nor to correlate 2 or more variables. It can acquire a lot of information through description. It can be used as an indirect test of a theory or model some behaviours/situations cannot be studied any other way to general categories of descriptive designs: surveys observational studies. 3.4.2 Explanatory Method: Explanatory research focuses on why questions. For example, it is one thing to describe the crime rate in a country, to examine trends over time or to compare the rates in different countries. It is quite a different thing to develop explanations about why the crime rate is as high as it is, why some types of crime are increasing or why the rate is higher in some countries than in others. 3.4.3 Qualitative Method : The design of qualitative research is probably the most flexible of the various experimental techniques, encompassing a variety of accepted methods and structures. From an individual case study to an extensive survey, this type of study still needs to be carefully constructed and designed, but there is no standardized structure. 3.4.4 Quantitative method: Quantitative research is all about quantifying the relationships between variables. Variables are the things you measure on your subjects, which can be humans, animals, or cells. Variables can represent subject characteristics (e.g. weight, height, sex), the things are really interested in variables representing the timing of measurements and nature of any treatments subjects receive. To quantify the relationships between these variables, we use values of effect statistics such as the correlation coefficient, the difference between means of something in two groups, or the relative frequency of something in two groups. 3.4.5 Types of data collection i) Primary Data: this is the data which is collected by the first research person. In this method the data collect himself using methods such as interviews and questionnaires. The key point here is that the data he/she collect is unique to him and his/her research and, until he/she publish, no one else has access to it. There are many methods of collecting primary data and the main methods include: Questionnaires, interviews, focus group interviews, observation, case-studies, diaries ,critical incidents

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Tiger Airways Case Study

Tiger Airways Case Study Tiger Airways is an ultra-low cost airline which commenced services on 25 March 2005. It is currently the largest low-cost airline operating out of Singapore in terms of passengers carried. In 2006, the airline flew 1.2 million passengers, a growth of 75% from the previous year. These days, the hottest news pops that Tiger Airways and Thai Airways International will form an airline based in Thailand, where Thai Airways International and Tiger Airways will own 51% and 49% respectively of the newly formed airline. Operations are expected to begin in the 1st quarter of 2011. This paper is based on this information with further discussion the business model and strategies with Tiger Airways and the whole low-cost airline industry. Question 1 a) Discuss why Tiger Airways jointly launch a low-cost airline with Thai Airways. Provide 5 (five) reasons. Tiger Airways and Thai Airways are both infusive airlines in Asia. Tiger Airways jointly launch a low-cost airline with Thai Airways can benefits both two companies to achieve a win-win situation. Tiger Airways based on Singapore, choose to co-operate with Thai Airways could further develop the international market in Asia. Thailand is one of the most famous tourist resorts in the world. Tourism is a major economic factor in Thailand, contributing an estimated 6.7% to Thailands GDP. No doubt, more and more people will choose Tiger Airways to Thailand as it price advantages. This strategic decision will attract more passengers to Tiger Airways. Compare to Jet star, Air Asia and other low-cost airlines, Tiger Airways is still smaller than its rivals. This move could increase the overall strength of the market competitiveness in Asia. Tiger Airways is all along with its low-cost airline business model from the day when it established. This is a superexcellent chance to advertise its business model and corporate image. b) Evaluate whether Tiger Airways decision in the above strategy is considered as a strategic decision. Support with 6 (six) reasons. The definition of a strategic decision is the decision that is concerned with whole environment in which the firm operates the entire resources and the people who form the company and the interface between the two. There are some characteristics/features of a strategic decision A strategic decision has a major resource proposition for an organization. The resource proposition of Tigers decision is to occupy Thailands international airlines which concerned possess a new market of Asia civil aviation. A strategic decision deal with harmonizing organizational resource capabilities with the threats and opportunities. Thai Airways used to be Tigers competitor, this decision change the competitor to its partner contains with threats and opportunities. A strategic decision deal with the range of organizational activities. Tiger Airways plans to increase its fleet to 68 by 2015 and has the same pan-Asian aspirations as its competitors through this co-operation. A strategic decision involves a change of major kind since an organization operates in ever-changing environment. Both Tiger Airways and Thai Airways are low-cost airlines. This move signified that the two companies want to through this co-operation to change the environment of Asia civil aviation. A strategic decision will involve a lot of risk. Thai Airways own 51% of the low cost airline that means they control the scales. If some contradictions between them, this decision will be a big risk for Tiger Airways. A strategic decision is consider both administrative and operational decisions. Tigers decision aim to reduce cost which co-operate with Thai Airways to achieve the airline business in Thailand through its operational decision of cost-saving actions. c) Discuss which 5 (five) macro-environment factors that will most likely affect the low-cost airline industry. Political factors are how and to what degree a government intervenes in the economy. Specifically, political factors include areas such as tax policy, environmental law, trade restrictions, tariffs, and political stability. Eg, if the government wants to increase the airport construction fees, that must can be a big challenge for the low-cost airline industry. Because it will threaten the price advantage which is the biggest advantage for low-cost airline industry compare to others. Furthermore, governments have great influence on the airport infrastructure built, foreign affairs and many other factors that will most likely affect the low-cost airline industry. Economic factors include economic growth, exchange rates and the inflation rate. These factors have major impacts on how air tickets operate and make the price decisions to each low-cost airline industry company. As the low-cost airlines usually between country to country ,the exchange rates and other economic factors will direct influence the costs of goods and the supply and the price of tickets in the low-cost airline industry . Social factors include the cultural aspects and include health consciousness, population growth rate, age distribution, career attitudes and emphasis on safety. Trends in social factors affect the demand for the low-cost airlines products and how that company operates. For example, Tiger Airways not only supply the airline services but also supply hotel booking, sightseeing tour and other services. But all these should take different social factors into account. Technological factors include technological aspects such as aerosatsystem, technology incentives and the rate of technological change in this industry. They can determine barriers to entry, minimum efficient service level and influence strategic decisions. Furthermore, technological shifts can affect costs, quality, and lead to innovation in the low-cost airline industry. Law factors include the relevant laws affect low-cost airlines. Eg. Tiger Airway Australian only provide domestic service in Australian, because the legal rule of Australian to limit. Question 2 Based on the case study and information on the webpage (www.tigerairways.com/sg), analyze 3 (three) levels of strategy that you can identify at Tiger airways. Corporate and Business level strategy. Operational strategy. Porters Competitive Strategy Model Porter (1980) has described a category scheme consisting of three general types of strategies that are commonly used by businesses. These three generic strategies are defined along two dimensions: strategic scope and strategic strength. Strategic scope is a demand side dimension and looks at the size and composition of the market you intend to target. Strategic strength is a supply-side dimension and looks at the strength or core competency of the firm. In particular he identified two competencies that he felt were most important: product differentiation and product cost Competitive Strategies for Tiger airways In view of the above challenges, low-cost airlines must do three things to ensure their long-term survival. Cost Leadership. Tiger airways maintained a sustainable low-cost advantage over their full-service competitors. Tiger airways ensured that their costs per passenger-km continue to be 50 per cent or more below those of full-service airlines and continuing to reduce their own costs too. Differentiation Strategy. Tiger airways focused on differentiation of their product, that mean they must also offer a product with some frills, which is very highly rated by passengers in terms of value for money. They have draw lessons from the successful model by their competitors like Virgin Blue in Australia and JetBlue in the USA. Virgin Blue was the first carrier outside North America to introduce multi-channel real-time satellite TV to its flights called Live2Air. The strategies of Tiger airways are twofold to take on the legacy carriers and attract higher-yield passengers, and to add points of difference from other low-cost airlines Market Share and Market Segmentation Strategy Tiger airways ensured that on most of their routes they become the number one or number two carriers in terms of market share in Asia. This dominance, combined with their low fares, gives them a very powerful defensive position should new competitors attempt to enter, while also ensuring a strong cash-flow base on which to mount further expansion. Tiger Airways survival and success is due in no small measure to its growth strategy, which has focused on becoming dominant in most of its markets. Operational strategy As mentioned earlier, the chief difference between low cost carriers and traditional airlines fall into three groups: service savings, operational savings and overhead savings. Tiger Airways tend to focus on short haul route. To achieve the low operating costs per passenger, this type of carriers need to have as many seats on board its aircraft as possible, to fill them as much as possible, and to fly the aircraft as often as possible. Tiger Airways want to through its low cost airline affect the traditional airline hub-and-spoke networks poses interesting questions for the airlines industry and policy makers. It means choosing to perform a system of activities differently from that of traditional rivals and providing a coherent set of key activities that reinforce each other to achieve such position in a sustainable manner. Despite the challenges faced, Tigers low-cost model appears to be sustainable in Asia as it has been in the Singapore, Thailand, China and elsewhere. It has a different and substantially lower cost structure than the conventional network model, because the latter imposes higher costs on those who operate network systems. While Tigers network airlines can reduce their unit costs further, they can match those on short-haul routes. Tiger Airways competed for a part of their own traditional markets with low-cost carriers and it will increasingly generate most of their business from the denser, short-haul, inclusive tour markets and from long-haul routes. Within Asia, in South-east Asia and even in Australia, Tiger Airways cleared that low-cost airlines will become the dominant carriers in domestic and short-haul markets. It is not a passing phase. Tiger Airways was here to stay and it will dominate most of the markets they enter. Tiger Airways jointly launch a low-cost airline with Thai Airways was a example to prove. Question 3 a) Using Porters 5 (five) forces model, analyse all the forces in the low-cost airline industry. Buyer power Low-cost Airlines generally have a large number of buyers. Many of these are individual consumers purchasing flights directly from the airline, although there are B2B sales to charter companies, discounters, and similar buyers. In the low-cost carrier market, airlines are competing for the same market segment. The bargaining power of the consumers is increasing as the supply exceeds the demands. Price sensitivity is high; a result of factors such as the growth of online price comparison sites, corporate travel expense policies for business flyers such as Jetstar and Virgin Blue. The consumers are price sensitive. One of the challenges that all the low-cost Airline must face is the lack of customer loyalty in the low-cost carrier arena where passengers easily switch to airlines that offer lower fares. Buyers have no loyalty in low cost airlines such as Tiger Airways as the trip is purchased according to price. Supplier power Low-cost Airlines must enter into contracts when buying or leasing aircraft from suppliers. Breaking hose contracts can often imply a heavy financial cost. Furthermore, Boeing and Airbus effectively form a duopoly of suppliers of new jetliners, not only in the large jetliner category, with planes such as the 747 and A380 but also in small jetliner category with planes such as the 737 and A320. In the market for lower-capacity regional jets and propeller-driven aircraft, companies such as Embraer, ATR, and Bombadier are significant suppliers. The relative lack of alternative manufacturers or substitute inputs increases supplier power. Air Indias passenger fleet consists of 46 Boeing, 78 Airbus, seven ATR, and seven Bombadier planes. Southwest Airlines is the worlds largest low-cost carrier. Southwests successful business model involves not only flying multiple short, quick trips into the secondary airports of major markets but also using only one aircraft type, the Boeing 737. Suppliers offer fuel, labor, airport and security services all with changing prices. Aviation fuel is another vital input. Number of fuel suppliers is still relatively few. However, it is difficult for suppliers to forward integrate. Strategic alliance among airlines for economies size such as code sharing and economies scale such as purchase of fuel and aircraft could reduce the supplier power in some level. New entrants The economic entrance barriers to the not only low-cost airlines but also all the airlines industry is relatively high. For an entirely new company, they include the considerable up-front outlay needed to obtain planes, although this may not be an issue for an existing airline beginning to offer flights to a new country or region. Distribution is not particularly easy, as new players need to establish an online booking system, and relationships with travel agents and other sales intermediaries. It is also vital to obtain airport slots for take-off and landing. There has been a growth in air traffic over recent years which mean that congestion at airports in many countries is expected, especially the major hubs. The time slot given to an low-cost airline is important, and is something all airlines negotiate with airports. Established airlines will already hold the monopoly over slots at certain airports, making it harder for new low-cost airlines to infiltrate. This creates difficulties for a new low-cost airline aiming to negotiate prime slots at busy airports and can result in it being restricted to offering flights only at off-peak times, or having to fly to airports further away from popular destinations. This can be a deterrent to new airlines, as customers may seek more convenient alternatives. For example, in Singapore infrastructure constraints pose as a formidable entry barrier. Because of the intense price war, a new entrant will find it almost impossible to offer rates that are lower than Tiger Airways. The airline industry is highly capital intensive. New entrants are challenged by expensive aircrafts, high cost of operation and war for talents. New entrants also find it very hard to look for suitable airport as airport slots are reserved for established airlines. Substitutes Other forms of transport such as road, rail and marine travel are considered as substitutes to airline travel. Buyers take into account not only the cost of travel but also how long the journey will take on corresponding forms of transportation. In some countries, air travel makes it easier to overcome long distances and has certain benefits such as shorter travel time than rail travel, even including the time to check in. However based on the price advantages of low-cost airlines, rail and road transportation will not becomes more attractive alternatives for a majority of buyers. Furthermore, many consumers are now aware of the environmental impact of air travel, and are turning to rail travel instead. It is possible to travel around much of the world by long-distance bus or train, although levels of service vary and some border crossings may present a difficulty. Rivalry In the airline industry where the market is highly saturated, the rivalry between existing airlines is one of the strongest forces. Rivalry is increased by the presence of low-cost carriers in the market, as these companies can compete more intensely on price. Switching costs for buyers are low. Besides, existing airlines such as SIA will sometimes marketed big promotions which almost has the same price as low-cost airlines, it means that it is easy for them to change to a competitor. In terms of intra-industry competition is also high. Eg. In Asia, Tiger Airways as a new entrant poses as a threat to established low-cost carriers such as Jetstar and Virgin Blue. The competition in the budget sector is very high as all airlines has the same no frills philosophy. Price is the major differentiating factor in the low-cost carrier market, an area where Tiger Airways lead. b) Provide a conclusion and reason on the attractiveness of the low-cost airline industry. No doubt, the biggest attractiveness of low-cost airline industry is based on its great price advantage as it saves money compare to the ticket price of the traditional airways. Besides, it promotes great vacations. For example, Tiger Airways also supply Airways hotels, Travel insurance, Budget accommodation, Car hire etc. With Tiger Airways you would be thrilled because you get to have a great holiday. At the same price compare to other transports ,you do not need to worry anymore about long and tiresome journeys by bus, train or car. This would invariably involve countless days on road, living out of a suitcase and staying in uncomfortable hotels. The flight does away with all this inconvenience. Question 4 Explain value chain analysis. Based on the case and research done through the companys website, analyse the value chain of Tiger Airways. Value Chain Analysis describes the activities that take place in a business and relates them to an analysis of the competitive strength of the business. Influential work by Michael Porter suggested that the activities of a business could be grouped under two headings: (1) Primary Activities those that are directly concerned with creating and delivering a product (e.g. component assembly); (2) Support Activities, which whilst they are not directly involved in production, may increase effectiveness or efficiency (e.g. human resource management). It is rare for a business to undertake all primary and support activities. Primary Activities Primary value chain activities of Tiger Airways include: Primary Activity Description Inbound logistics Tiger Airways based on Singapore, Tiger Airways can attempt to co-operate with Airbus to lower the cost of the airplanes. It can also co-operate with food suppliers to get cheaper and more delicious. Operations Tiger Airways now operates a fleet of 19 Airbus A320-family aircraft and is committed to increasing its fleet size to 68 by December 2015. The airline operates flights to 33 destinations across 11 countries and territories in Asia and Australia from its aircraft bases in three locations Singapores Changi Airport Budget Terminal, Tullamarine Airport in Melbourne and Adelaide Airport in South Australia. Besides it has detail duties, responsibilities and specifications for every position include Flight Dispatchers, Operations Controllers, Flight Safety Manager, Pilots and Cabin Crew. Outbound logistics Tiger Airways of Singapore has agreed to open their operations in various countries. It is also stepping forward to associate with a Global Distribution System company to strengthen its ticketing system to enable travelers to access to more passengers. Marketing and sales The Company recorded an operating profit of $28.0 million and a profit for the year attributable to shareholders of the Company of $28.2 million for the financial year ended 31 March 2010. Revenues grew 28.6% to $486.2 million while operating costs grew only 7.7%, despite the 53.8% increase in passengers compared to the preceding 12 months. Growth in revenues was supported by the combination of passenger seat revenue increasing 19.6% and ancillary revenue growth of 87.4%. Ancillary revenues currently comprise 19.4% of our revenue base, an increase from 13.3% in FY2009. Management continues to be focused on optimising ancillary revenues, with initiatives such as the carriage of cargo being introduced in FY2011. During the last 12 months from 2009 to 2010 the number of passengers reached at 4,872,000 Service Besides online sales and flying services à ¯Ã‚ ¼Ã…’Tiger Airways also supply Tiger Airways hotels, Travel insurance , Budget accommodation, Car hire etc. Support Activities Support activities include: Secondary Activity Description Procurement The procurement of Tiger Airways was a low-cost carrier operates a fleet of Airbus A320s. Now Tiger Airways has a fleet of 19 Airbus A320 aircraft and it aim to increasing its fleet size to 68 by December 2015. Human Resource Management The human resource management was organized by its special department in details. Processing of Employment Pass, Airport Pass and Staff Pass Administer Staff intranet database Administer procedures for new hires and resigned employees Compiling of information for surveys requested by its special agencies. Technology Development Around 75% of Tiger Airways seat sales come from the internet, both from the public and agents, while the balance 25% comes from call centers and airport outlets. By these years ,Tiger Airways continue to develop its webs power by co-operate with Facebook, Twiter, Youtube and other media agencies . It also emphasis on advising. For example in 2005, it had an increase of more than 60% in revenue and website visits since it launched its new advertising campaign: Whats New Pussycat? Infrastructure By 16 June 2010, the biggest shareholder of Tiger Airways is Singapore Airline Limited which holds 33.55% of the company shares. Approximately, 31.8% of the companys shares are held in the hands of public. Question 5 a) Analyse at least 5 (five) common cost-cutting strategies adopted by low-cost carriers that directly affect the passengers. 1. Develop creativity. A good example to support this strategy is the invention of Boeing 737. The Boeing 737 is a short-term and lower-cost twin-engine airliner developed by U.S. which influenced the whole low cost airline in the world. With this aircraft, it can save the gas but also narrow the costing of supplier to gain the biggest benefit of airline. Southwest Airline is the biggest low-cost airline in the world which using only this aircraft type to add a batch management to get the cost-cutting. 2. Rational use of resources. The low-cost airlines usual have limit resources, however use it rational become the key to success. After 911 the airline industry in U.S. was decreased. But Southwest Airline remodeled its Boeing 737 , added six more seats to every plane and guarantee will not effect the comfortable of the passengers, which help Southwest gain the profit even the past-911 time. 3. Efficient chick in service. The low-cost airways usually provide short-term service. The fly travel time will not over 2 hours. All the passengers concerned how fast they can chick in and how long they can arrive. The same successful example of Southwest Airline proved that they only need 10-15 minutes from chick in to take off, which usually take 1 hour to do that. This action not only gains the trust of passengers but also save the time. As time is money in business, they gain the efficient cost-cutting. 4. 0 strategy. Every low-cost airline should have a self- orientation of their company. For the low-cost airlines 0 means no luxury fitment, no free-service of food, no provide of TV and ear phone ect. to make a cost-cutting. 5. Effective and efficient operation. The low-cost airlines operate many planes. The key is how to operate them efficient. The biggest successful factor of Southwest Airline is the number 11 in its cost-cutting culture as 11 means they guarantee every Boeing 737 of their airline fly 11 times per day. It gains both the passengers benefit and the max operation of their airplanes. b) Recommend at least 3 (three) future strategies that Tiger Airways could implement to maintain its low-cost strategies. Break-even. A useful method for making expense comparisons is break-even analysis. Break-even is the point at which gross profit equals expenses. In a business year, it is the time at which your sales volume has become sufficient to enable your over-all operation to start showing a profit. It is important for low-cost airlines to remember that once sales pass the break-even point, the fixed expenses percentage goes down as the sales volume goes up. Locating Reducible Expenses. The airlines profit and loss statement provides a summary of expense information and is the focal point in locating expenses that can be cut. Taking cost cutting Action. When the airlines have located a problem expense area, the next step obviously is to reduce that cost so as to increase the profit. A key to the effectiveness of your cost-cutting action is the worth of the various expenditures. As long as you know the worth of your expenditures, you can profit by making small improvements in expenses. Keep an open eye and an open mind. It is better to do a spot analysis once a month than to wait several months and then do a detailed study. Take action as soon as possible. You can refine your cost-cutting action as you go along. Conclusion The low-cost airline revolution has injected a dose of democracy into the travel world. Low-cost airlines have succeeded in taking over a large part of the market. Tiger Airways jointly launch a low-cost airline with Thai Airways provide a new opportunity, a new market and a new business model based on its successful business strategies. Moreover, Tiger Airways get ready to take off more quickly; enabling it as competitive airline to schedule more flights and provide more attractive schedules for passengers. No doubt, there is a bright future for Tiger Airway!

Monday, August 19, 2019

Critical Review of Two Articles with the Concept of Interpellation Essa

When creating the title for their book, which is dedicated to Stuart Hall, perhaps Paul Gilroy, Lawrence Grossberg and Angela McRobbie did not know that they not only found an exact citation to summarise all the works of this influencing cultural theorists, but also proposed the best phrase to describe Cultural Studies, that is "without guarantee". Indeed, Cultural Studies devotes itself to questioning knowledge "guaranteed" to be true in society and more important, to continuously raising debates as its fundamental method to avoid any "guaranteed" answer. As a central concept of Cultural Studies, "interpellation" precisely reflects those features. First proposed by Louis Althusser in his essay "Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses (Notes Towards an Investigation)" (1971), "interpellation" was defined as a process through which concrete individuals are addressed by ideology and then are produced as subjects. Since Althusser referred to churches, schools, family, communications , to name only a few, as a set of institutions practicing this function of ideology, he challenged social norms which seem to "naturally" come to us from those familiar environments. Although the concept has opened a new epoch in the research of identity, it has still subjected to several critical discussions for further developments. Through their selected works below, Mladen Dolar and John Law contributes to those debates two points of view on the ways in which interpellation is operated within our society and within each individual. The essay "Beyond Interpellation" (1993) of Mladen Dolar is largely based on his obsession of "a clean cut which can be followed on different levels" (p.75) existing in Althusserian theory. Dolar (1993) recognises this ... ... 6(2), pp.75-96. Foucault, M., 1972. The Archeology of Knowledge. New York: Pantheon. Hall, S., 1981. "The Whites of Their Eyes: Racist Ideologies and the Media". In G. Bridges and R. Brunt, eds. 1987, Silver Linings, London: Lawrence & Wishart. Larrain, J., 1991. Stuart Hall and the Marxist Concept of Ideology. In D., Morley & K. Chen, eds. 2007, Stuart Hall - Critical Dialogues in Cultural Studies, USA & Canada: Routledge. Law, J., 2000. 'On the Subject of the Object: Narrative, Technology, and Interpellation". Configurations, 8(1), pp. 1-29. Pà ªcheux, M., 1975, Les và ©rità ©s de La Palice, Paris: Maspero. Sawyer, Keith R., 2002. "A Discourse on Discourse: An Archaeological History of an Intellectual Concept". Cultural Studies, 16 (3), pp. 433–456. Weedon, C., 2004. Identity and Culture: Narratives of Difference and Belonging. Maidenhead: Open University Press.