Friday, March 1, 2019
McCrae & CostaÃ¢â¬â¢s Five-Factor Model Essay
McCrae and Costas phoebe bird-Factor manakin of character is said to be prognosticative in certain behaviours such as h wizardsty, theorise f beance and procrastination. This flipper-Factor pretence applies to organisational testing beca habituate record is a crucial part in grounds the chases and abilities of an appli after partt in spite of appearance a business. There confound been several disapprovals of the macroscopical 5 and how accurately it quarter describe a somebodys future performance. These unfavorable judgments testament be discussed in length in this prove. The essay will as well as consider the usefulness of the Big Five indoors psychological judicial decisions.Personality can be defined as the propelling organisation of systems that intend the individuals characteristic patterns of behaviour, thought, and musical n matchlessing (Sibaya & Nicholas, Personality, 2008). precisely put one can describe spirit as the aspects of a soulfulness w hich make them unique (Sibaya & Malcolm, 2003). Personality attri howeveres have successfully been canvas over centauries and investigators have concluded that the record domain can be best described by five super ordinate constructs (Digman, 1990).A nature trait is a durable disposition to behave in a particular way and the five-factor cast has become the dominant paper of a personality structure (Weiten, 2007). The five-factor pose of personality came nigh as a result of Hans Eysencks two dimensions of personality. Eysencks surmise comprised of neuroticism-stability and extraversion-introversion and he later added the third dimension kat oncen as psychoticism (Sibaya & Malcolm, 2003). Eysencks theory also concluded that personality traits could largely be determined by genetics (Sibaya & Malcolm, 2003).Eysencks theory of personality dimensions was a precursor of the five-factor model developed by Costa and McCrae (Sibaya & Malcolm, 2003). The five-factor model can be seen as the most recent memory access to personality and personality traits. Costa and McCrae make out that personality traits derive from five higher gear up traits. These traits argon now known as the Big-Five (Weiten, 2007). Similar to Eysencks view on personality traits Costa and McCrae concluded that genetics play a substantial case in personality (Digman, 1990). An theoretical account of genetics playing a role in the knowledge in personality traits can be seen in the study of fit.Jim Lewis and Jim Springer were identical twins separated at stock in 1940 (Sibaya & Malcolm, 2003). These twins were later reunited and research showed that they had similar personality traits. The twins both drove the same model car they both smoked heavily and comparabled the same brand of cigarettes (Sibaya & Malcolm, 2003). A except stir of the five-factor model is that it has shown in studies that this personality study applies across cultures and is widely identifiable in different cult ures around the world (Weiten, 2007).The five-factor model states that at that place are five core personality traits bleakness, painstakingness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism. These form a mnemonic, OCEAN, which is oftentimes used for remembering the personality traits (Sibaya & Malcolm, 2003). Openness applies to the openness one would have to an experience. Openness is often associated with traits such as curiosity, imagination and flexibility (Weiten, 2007). McCrae states that openness can determine ones political attitudes or ideologies (Weiten, 2007). conscientiousness relates to traits involving well disciplined and well organised people and is associated with people being diligent within the turn tailplace (Weiten, 2007). Extraversion relates to people who can be categorised as outgoing or sociable people (Weiten, 2007). agreeableness relates to ones ability to be sympathetic, trusting and modest (Weiten, 2007). loving personality traits have been known to be associated with a constructive approach to dealing with conflict but agreeable people have also been known to be aggressive (Weiten, 2007).Neuroticism relates to people who are noisome or hostile (Weiten, 2007). People who score high in this personality trait have been known to over re-act to stressful situations (Weiten, 2007). Organisational psychology focuses on role related behaviour, group pressure, commitment to organisations and patterns of communication (Sibaya & Malcolm, 2003). In order for an organisational psychologist to determine this behaviour certain organisational testing or psychological discernments demand to take place.A psychological sound judgement is a standardised mensurate of a seek of a ersons behaviour (Weiten, 2007). Psychological assessment is one of the oldest and most focussed areas of industrial-organisational psychology (Weiten, 2007). Psychological assessment focuses on an individuals difference in behaviour and their individual business concern performance and then develops ways in which they can measure or predict such performances. Testing enables psychologists to select people for bloods, assess ones potential and develop people. Testing can often haul to labelling of people and extract for contemplates, progressions or training has often been made in accordance to these labels.The importance of psychological assessments within the workplace is that they enable the stead expender to have predictions about the applicators future performance and how that applicant may behave in the future. An example of how psychological assessments are undecomposed and important can be seen in the use of a personality test. A personality test measure various aspects of personality, including motives, worrys and attitudes (Weiten, 2007). Personality tests can be helpful because they assist in personnel excerpt within business and industry (Weiten, 2007).A sub-division of personality tests is interest inventories which determine the interest of an individual in relation to the interests needed to do the subscriber line. An example of interest inventories can be seen in the need for a sales person to have a personality type that is an extrovert. The example of the sales person can also explain the importance of psychological assessments within the work environment because without this form of testing perspective utilizationers would be unable to employ people that are specifically suited to the position on offer, e. . an extrovert. The use of psychological assessment in business begins when the candidate is still in the selection dish out. The applicant for a perspective job will starting time consider the job analysis. A job analysis is the process of obtaining breeding about a job by determining what duties, tasks or activities it entails in order to perform the job successfully (Sibaya & Malcolm, 2003). Following a job analysis the applicant would then submit an application and begin the se lection process.A selection process can be described as the process of identifying who will be hired from the pool of applicants (Sibaya & Malcolm, 2003). The applicant will then undergo psychological assessment which involves a prediction of the applicants knowledge, abilities, attitudes and personality traits. The way in which these tests help with the selection process are that they are the best predictors of performance and behaviour on the job (Sibaya & Malcolm, 2003). Now that the selection process has been explained one can similarly connection the development and promotion process to psychological assessment.With development or promotion the worker will have to undergo psychological testing to envision that their abilities and interests fit with the promotion available. The five-factor model applies within the workplace because it enables employers to evaluate employees personalities and make use their personality traits to the best of their abilities. Research has indicate d that the Big Five traits are able to predict specific behaviour (Weiten, 2007). The Big Fives ability to predict this behaviour can be seen as beneficial in the workplace.An example of how the Big Five can avail an industry can be seen in the personality trait conscientiousness because it has been said that conscientiousness correlates with innocenty, higher job performance and a refuse alcohol consumption (Weiten, 2007). This being said one can perceive that the Big Five traits allow a perspective employer the ability to employ conscientious workers. Many of the Big Five traits are related to public life success (Weiten, 2007). The five-factor model can be used in the selection, development and promotion of employees because it allows the employer to predict what qualities the applicant has.The example used previously about the sales rep needing to be an extrovert is a perfect example of how the Big Five apply to selection, development and promotion. The five-factor model wo uld allow the employer of such sales rep to be able to select candidates that fit the personality type that is required for the job at hand. Similar to this the employer could use the five-factor traits to determine whether an existing employee fits the personality required in a job col and therefore the five-factor model applies to promotions within business as well.A besides benefit to the Big Five is that an employer can determine an employees anaemic traits and develop them further thus improving the workforce. The use of the Big Five within occupational testing has been criticised by many psychologists and researchers as they feel nit does not adequately determine ones ability to perform a task. A common criticism is that there is a key need for more than five traits (Weiten, 2007). An example of this can be seen in recent studies that state that honesty-humility should be a sixth trait.Another criticism is that studies have shown that the five-factor model can discriminate against people. In the case of southwestward Africa this criticism of the five-factor model hardly improved the outcome of the test because the dissimilitude led to changes in legislation which protect the rights of people and state that only valid testing may be done (Sibaya & Malcolm, 2003). The legislation protect peoples rights within organisational tests has encouraged the use of these tests in the selection of new employees.Studies have also shown that the Big Five are not necessarily a reflection of ones personality but rather a reflection of their test-taking skills (Ones, Reiss, & Viswesvaran, 1996). This criticism states that the results of the five-factor traits test are a reflection of ones cognitive ability and years of information (Ones, Reiss, & Viswesvaran, 1996). This criticism is not necessarily a negative aspect as it only ensures better use of the Big Five within organisational testing because education is an important aspect to ones personality.There are tw o main criticisms of the five-factor model. These are the figure of reference exercise and socially in demand(predicate) responding (Hanges, Dickson, & Smith, 2001). Critics turn over that the five-factor model is not useful because it is too encompassing to be applied to psychological assessment (Schmit & Ryan, 1993). The first criticism is the close in of reference effect which states that the image the average job applicant would like to convey will have an effect on the psychological assessment (Hanges, Dickson, & Smith, 2001).The frame of reference effect can be explained better if one considers that a job applicant will be guided by their self-presentation (Schmit & Ryan, 1993). An employee will stand to gain or lose from the results of the psychological assessment and will therefore may alter their response to be in line with what would be considered the correct response (Hanges, Dickson, & Smith, 2001). This altered response by the job applicant can be seen as a ideal- employee frame of reference where as the response given by a offer up would be seen as a stranger-description frame of mind (Schmit & Ryan, 1993).The second criticism of the five-factor model is the socially desirable response. The socially desirable response can be divided into two sub-groups. Firstly there is self-deception which is the unconscious mind tendency to see oneself in a favourable light (Schmit & Ryan, 1993). Secondly, there is the theory of impression management where a person is consciously aware that they are putting up a false front in order to create a better impression (Schmit & Ryan, 1993).The concept of socially desirable responses has undergone 3 studies which examined the effect of the socially desirable response. The result of these three studies found that in a test of fake good vs. honest responses the personality reliabilities were higher in the fake good (Hanges, Dickson, & Smith, 2001). A further study was done on socially desirability consisting of three sample groups. The sample groups were the job applicant, the job incumbent and the student (Hanges, Dickson, & Smith, 2001).The results of this study lots like the results of other studies showed that the job applicant showed more socially desirable responses than the job incumbent (Hanges, Dickson, & Smith, 2001). When defining personality some may argue with Freuds opinion that personality is largely hidden and unknown. This definition of personality would parallel the argument that the five-factor model is a poor predictor of job success as well as suggesting that it is unethical to use the five-factor model within employment procedures (Hogan, Hogan, & Roberts, 1996).This argument could stem from criticisms such as the effect of socially desirable responses, the frame of reference effect and the thought that the five-factor model is limited by only considering five traits. Although these criticisms all have a valid argument one cannot help but believe the evidence that a well-constructed personality assessment is a valid predictor of job performance and it enhances fairness in the employment process (Hogan, Hogan, & Roberts, 1996).