Sunday, March 3, 2019
memory is a constructive and active process Essay
storehouse is a subject that has been of unt pop out of date interest to psychologists for many years and various look has been carried out in aid of trying to understand how store works. It kindle be understood that fund is compromised of three processes and three key subsystems which change it to work and perform efficiently on a daily basis. The encode process is where information is retrieved via what is kn experience as sensory retentivity which is encoded each visu anyy or semantically by attaching a meaning to a word. In terms of storage of w behousing, the information in the sensory store board is either held in short term depot where it nates be recalled for a few minutes or long term memory where it can be recalled for several decades. However a topic of much debate is whether memory is a inferential or inactive process. Memory as an active process can be explained as the idea of memories be altered, distorted or scour constructed from external sources whereas hands-off memory is where information is recalled exactly as it is encoded. A usurp has been make that memory is active and constructive at that placefore in come in to evaluate this look at it is key to consider the relevant studies carried out in this bea of cognitive psychology. ( energize and Roth, 2007)When looking at the processes involved in memory, it is clear that the luck fetch an important role in whether retrieval becomes an active or passive process. When information is unfamiliar or leading questions are asked about memories, this can affect our recall and the memories can become distorted which implies a constructive aspect when recalling information. A number of studies examining specific circumstances and their proceedss on memory support this excogitation. Encoding follows a similar principle, where depending on the circumstances the information is either encoded passively or constructed with a mix of current information and information stored in long term memory in order to attach meaning to the information. Storage on the other slip by is primarily passive as the information is recordedautomatically. It is in any case important to take into account that there is not just one geek of memory but that it can be split into two diverse categories, short term memory and long term memory.( couple and Roth, 2007)When looking at short term memory specifically, it becomes clear that there is a sensible and active aspect to the process and then supporting the use up at least partially that memory is constructive. This is demonstrated in Baddley and Hitchs model of short term memory (as cited in Brace and Roth 2007) they admit that the short term memory is comparable to a workbench concept where new information is mixed with old memories and stored information in order to carry out a variety of processes depending on the specific circumstances. The main weakness with this theory or concept is the inability to visually re assure what is occuring in the brain. Although we can look at PET scans and see copulation differences in the posterior Hippocampus when investigating the active part of memory as can be seen in Maguier et als scan (as cited in Brace and Roth 2007) of taxi drivers where that specific section of the brain was enlarged. We are still unable to see the actual information macrocosm encoded or stored however the speculation and theories put forward support the concept of somewhat aspects of short term memory beingness constructive.Moving onto the main memory processes, Bartletts The war of the ghosts guide (as cited in Brace and Roth 2007) is particularly relevant when evaluating the use up of memory being an entirely constructive and active process. He chose a story specifically aimed to contain unfamiliar concepts to the participants. This allowed him to examine the effects of mixer and ad hominem experiences on memory and recall. This subject field supports the concept of mem ory being constructive and dynamic because the evidence fork outs that instead of the story being encoded and stored in a manner that allowed the participants to recall it consummately and undistorted, the participants used previous experiences and concepts that made sense to them in order to encode and retrieve the information.This distortion or transformation of the facts directly points to memory being active as during the impact of the story, it is likely that elaborative rehearsal played a part in the system of encoding and storage as the participants were linking information toexisting acquaintance in order to make sense of the story. However it is important to consider there was no control e realplace any of the changeables in the study therefore the findings from the experiment would be serious to measure in terms of verity and reliability in relation to the claim proposed.Further support for the claim comes from a study carried out by Loftus and Palmer (1974, as ci ted in Brace and Roth 2007) which was designed to look at the effect of leading questions and the influence of philology on our memory of events. This study further supports the concept of memory being constructive as the information is being distorted through the participants own experiences, this shows that the memories are not being recalled accurately but are being recalled in a manner that the participant is merging past experiences and companionship along with the study material.This combined with the suggestive nature of the verbs used could also affect the retrieval of memories by misattributing the source resulting in the participants believing something that may not be entirely accurate, in this case the speed of the cars and posture of glass in the video. Although when interpreting the findings, it is important to consider the confounding variable of separate differences I.e personal perception of speed which could effect the validity and generalisability of the data. The study also lacks ecological validity as witnessing the car crash via a media source would not evoke the same emotional response as a witnessing it beginning hand, which could effect the quality and detail of the information stored.In contrast, certain aspects of memory imply a passive aspect of memory as some types of memories are accurately stored and recalled with teentsy or no distortion and rarely forgotten. In the Bahrick et al (1975, as cited in Brace and Roth 2007) study which looked at the recollection of faces and names of people from their graduating classes it was found that even after 35 years there was almost no forgetting and accurate recall of names and faces. This Study supports the aspect of memory being a passive process as the information encoded is being recalled accurately and over a long period of time. These types of memories are classed as enduring memories and little or no loss or distortion occurs until very old age where other factors couldbe respons ible. However a weakness of the study was that it only tested names and faces which is a small representation of the types of knowledge stored in long term memory so would be difficult to apply the findings to all aspects of long term memory.Brown and Kulik (1977, as cited in Brace and Roth 2007) created the term flashbulb memories in relation to autobiographical memories and carried out an experiment to demonstrate this theory. This experiment focused on events that are strike and provoke strong emotional responses. This study further supports the notion of memory being passive as long as certain conditions are met. In this particular case the event has to be important to the individual and has to evoke a strong emotional response. As long as these conditions are met an individual is able to store and recall their memories of the event very accurately or at least the reception of the event i.e. who they were with and when they first found out etc.The emotional aspect of the event and the greatness to the individual means the information can be recalled exactly as it was encoded with little or no distortion. However, it is important to consider that the rehearsal effect may play an important part in the storage of the memories overdue to the emotional nature of the event it is possible that these memories are replayed or rehearsed more(prenominal) often than other memories.After evaluating the evidence in relation to the claim that memory is constructive and active, taking into account both the results and the inherent problems with the studies methodology the conclusion has to be drawn that whilst some aspects of memory are indeed constructive there are also passive elements in all three processes of memory. The studies carried out on the retrieval process of memory for sure show strong indication of memory being constructive and show that memories can be altered or distorted by a variety of factors meaning the information retrieved is subject to change . However looking at both the encoding and storage processes these have been shown to have both passive and constructive elements depending on the circumstances such as emotional responses and personal relevance. Therefore looking at memory as a single(a) entity, it has to be seen as an amalgamation of both constructive and passive elements. (Brace and Roth,2007)References Brace, N and Roth, I (2007) Memory structures, processes and skills in D. Miell, A.Phoenix, & K.Thomas(Eds.) Mapping psychology, Milton Keynes, The Open University.