OBJECTIVES 1. Describe the synthesis of the major hormones that regulate metabolism. A. Insulin B. Glucagon C. Glucocorticoids D. Epinephrine/noradrenaline 2. address the signaling transduction of the hormones. stunning receptor Signaling fall 3. Explain the biochemical effects of the hormones on metabolism. A. Carbohydrate B. lipid C. Protein 4. Explain the biochemical abnormalities associated with hormones that regulate metabolism. Hypersecretion Hyposecretion SYNTHESIS OF INSULIN (Remember: group 1 steroid hormones Group 2 peptide hormones Group 3 - peptide hormones that stand firm steroid like properties) *insulin is in group 2, so its sensory receptor is in the plasma membrane, and it is synthesized as a outstanding whit then undergoes modification. [pic] 1. Preproinsulin: MW = 11,500 ? Pre or Leader sequence: 23 hydrophobic amino acids; function is to guide preproinsulin to travel to the ER. one time in the ER, the loss leader sequence is then cleaved to form proinsulin. ? components: leader sequence, A and B grasps and C peptide cosmic string 2. Proinsulin: MW = 9000 ? Sequence: B chain C peptide A chain ? C peptide dictates where disulfide affectionate regards should be located.
MATURE INSULIN ? A small protein (MW: 5700) that consists of two chains, A and B linked by disulfide bridges from cysteine residues ? A chain: 21 amino acids, B chain: 30 AAs = 51 AAs ? 2 Inter-chain S-S bridges that marry A & B chains: A7 to B7, and A20 to B19 ? A 3rd intrachain d! isulfide bond connects residues A6 to A11 ? Does not hold up as mature insulin alone, it is precipitated with zinc Receptor enzyme: Receptor Tyrosine kinase * sufficient to phosphorylate critical tyrosine residues which are found in the B subunit *2 extra-cellular ? sub-units that contain the Insulin binding domains *2 transmembrane ? sub-units that contain the Protein...If you cause to get a full essay, order it on our website: OrderCustomPaper.com
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