OBJECTIVES 1. Describe the synthesis of the major hormones that regulate metabolism. A. Insulin B. Glucagon C. Glucocorticoids D. Epinephrine/ norepinephrine 2. address the signaling transduction of the hormones. sensory(a) receptor Signaling cascade 3. Explain the biochemical effects of the hormones on metabolism. A. Carbohydrate B. lipid C. Protein 4. Explain the biochemical abnormalities associated with hormones that regulate metabolism. Hypersecretion Hyposecretion SYNTHESIS OF INSULIN (Remember: group 1 steroid hormones Group 2 peptide hormones Group 3 - peptide hormones that get out steroid like properties) *insulin is in group 2, so its sensory receptor is in the plasma membrane, and it is synthesized as a bragging(a) whit then undergoes modification. [pic] 1. Preproinsulin: MW = 11,500 ? Pre or Leader sequence: 23 hydrophobic amino acids; function is to guide preproinsulin to travel to the ER. at once in the ER, the attractor sequence is then cleaved to form proinsulin. ? components: leader sequence, A and B grasps and C peptide chain 2. Proinsulin: MW = 9000 ? Sequence: B chain C peptide A chain ? C peptide dictates where disulfide sore regards should be located.
MATURE INSULIN ? A small protein (MW: 5700) that consists of two chains, A and B linked by disulfide bridges from cysteine residues ? A chain: 21 amino acids, B chain: 30 AAs = 51 AAs ? 2 Inter-chain S-S bridges that marry A & B chains: A7 to B7, and A20 to B19 ? A 3rd intrachain disulfide bond c! onnects residues A6 to A11 ? Does not come through as mature insulin alone, it is precipitated with zinc Receptor enzyme: Receptor Tyrosine kinase * adequate to phosphorylate critical tyrosine residues which are found in the B fractional monetary unit *2 extra-cellular ? sub-units that contain the Insulin binding domains *2 transmembrane ? sub-units that contain the Protein...If you want to get a full essay, order it on our website: OrderCustomPaper.com
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